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I fully expect that the new system will create a step change in consent for organ donation in Wales. The early indications are that this certainly is the case. New opt-out system in Wales aims to ... The number of people waiting for an organ transplant has risen to five-year high as a result of the coronavirus pandemic, new figures show. The NHS has issued an “urgent plea” to people to ... Wales switches to organ donation opt-out. Read more. ... Tinder’s head of European communications, said she hoped the dating app could be successful in promoting a serious health cause. Wales' health minister Mark Drakeford said: 'The latest figures show 14 people died last year in Wales while waiting for a transplant. The change to a soft opt-out system for organ donation will ... It follows a similar law change in Wales, introduced in 2015, with Scotland due to revert to an opt-out system in Spring 2021. Transplant surgery has been on hold since the start of Covid Following the introduction of the law in England, families are still consulted before organ donation goes ahead, which is why health officials have implored ... They became worried when the 25-year-old patient who received the kidney, and who was under their care at the University Hospital of Wales, became seriously unwell due to the infected organ. The numbers that show Wales' 'opt-out' organ donation system is saving lives ... Wales News Middle aged man meets vulnerable woman in 20s on dating app and then turns her into a prostitute Neath ...
The body on Somerton Beach - a body found in 1948 with a mysterious scrap of paper sewn into a secret pocket.
2020.09.16 22:02 FatFreddysCoatThe body on Somerton Beach - a body found in 1948 with a mysterious scrap of paper sewn into a secret pocket.
From Smithsonian Mag Most murders aren’t that difficult to solve. The husband did it. The wife did it. The boyfriend did it, or the ex-boyfriend did. The crimes fit a pattern, the motives are generally clear. Of course, there are always a handful of cases that don’t fit the template, where the killer is a stranger or the reason for the killing is bizarre. It’s fair to say, however, that nowadays the authorities usually have something to go on. Thanks in part to advances such as DNA technology, the police are seldom baffled anymore. They certainly were baffled, though, in Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, in December 1948. And the only thing that seems to have changed since then is that a story that began simply—with the discovery of a body on the beach on the first day of that southern summer—has bec0me ever more mysterious. In fact, this case (which remains, theoretically at least, an active investigation) is so opaque that we still do not know the victim’s identity, have no real idea what killed him, and cannot even be certain whether his death was murder or suicide. What we can say is that the clues in the Somerton Beach mystery (or the enigma of the “Unknown Man,” as it is known Down Under) add up to one of the world’s most perplexing cold cases. It may be the most mysterious of them all. Let’s start by sketching out the little that is known for certain. At 7 o’clock on the warm evening of Tuesday, November 30, 1948, jeweler John Bain Lyons and his wife went for a stroll on Somerton Beach, a seaside resort a few miles south of Adelaide. As they walked toward Glenelg, they noticed a smartly dressed man lying on the sand, his head propped against a sea wall. He was lolling about 20 yards from them, legs outstretched, feet crossed. As the couple watched, the man extended his right arm upward, then let it fall back to the ground. Lyons thought he might be making a drunken attempt to smoke a cigarette. Half an hour later, another couple noticed the same man lying in the same position. Looking on him from above, the woman could see that he was immaculately dressed in a suit, with smart new shoes polished to a mirror shine—odd clothing for the beach. He was motionless, his left arm splayed out on the sand. The couple decided that he was simply asleep, his face surrounded by mosquitoes. “He must be dead to the world not to notice them,” the boyfriend joked. It was not until next morning that it became obvious that the man was not so much dead to the world as actually dead. John Lyons returned from a morning swim to find some people clustered at the seawall where he had seen his “drunk” the previous evening. Walking over, he saw a figure slumped in much the same position, head resting on the seawall, feet crossed. Now, though, the body was cold. There were no marks of any sort of violence. A half-smoked cigarette was lying on the man’s collar, as though it had fallen from his mouth. The body reached the Royal Adelaide Hospital three hours later. There Dr. John Barkley Bennett put the time of death at no earlier than 2 a.m., noted the likely cause of death as heart failure, and added that he suspected poisoning. The contents of the man’s pockets were spread out on a table: tickets from Adelaide to the beach, a pack of chewing gum, some matches, two combs and a pack of Army Club cigarettes containing seven cigarettes of another, more expensive brand called Kensitas. There was no wallet and no cash, and no ID. None of the man’s clothes bore any name tags—indeed, in all but one case the maker’s label had been carefully snipped away. One trouser pocket had been neatly repaired with an unusual variety of orange thread. By the time a full autopsy was carried out a day later, the police had already exhausted their best leads as to the dead man’s identity, and the results of the postmortem did little to enlighten them. It revealed that the corpse’s pupils were “smaller” than normal and “unusual,” that a dribble of spittle had run down the side of the man’s mouth as he lay, and that “he was probably unable to swallow it.” His spleen, meanwhile, “was strikingly large and firm, about three times normal size,” and the liver was distended with congested blood. In the man’s stomach, pathologist John Dwyer found the remains of his last meal—a pasty—and a further quantity of blood. That too suggested poisoning, though there was nothing to show that the poison had been in the food. Now the dead man’s peculiar behavior on the beach—slumping in a suit, raising and dropping his right arm—seemed less like drunkenness than it did a lethal dose of something taking slow effect. But repeated tests on both blood and organs by an expert chemist failed to reveal the faintest trace of a poison. “I was astounded that he found nothing,” Dwyer admitted at the inquest. In fact, no cause of death was found. The body displayed other peculiarities. The dead man’s calf muscles were high and very well developed; although in his late 40s, he had the legs of an athlete. His toes, meanwhile, were oddly wedge-shaped. One expert who gave evidence at the inquest noted: I have not seen the tendency of calf muscle so pronounced as in this case…. His feet were rather striking, suggesting—this is my own assumption—that he had been in the habit of wearing high-heeled and pointed shoes. Perhaps, another expert witness hazarded, the dead man had been a ballet dancer? The mystery gets stranger after the jump. All this left the Adelaide coroner, Thomas Cleland, with a real puzzle on his hands. The only practical solution, he was informed by an eminent professor, Sir Cedric Stanton Hicks, was that a very rare poison had been used—one that “decomposed very early after death,” leaving no trace. The only poisons capable of this were so dangerous and deadly that Hicks would not say their names aloud in open court. Instead, he passed Cleland a scrap of paper on which he had written the names of two possible candidates: digitalis and strophanthin. Hicks suspected the latter. Strophanthin is a rare glycoside derived from the seeds of some African plants. Historically, it was used by a little-known Somali tribe to poison arrows. More baffled than ever now, the police continued their investigation. A full set of fingerprints was taken and circulated throughout Australia—and then throughout the English-speaking world. No one could identify them. People from all over Adelaide were escorted to the mortuary in the hope they could give the corpse a name. Some thought they knew the man from photos published in the newspapers, others were the distraught relatives of missing persons. Not one recognized the body. By January 11, the South Australia police had investigated and dismissed pretty much every lead they had. The investigation was now widened in an attempt to locate any abandoned personal possessions, perhaps left luggage, that might suggest that the dead man had come from out of state. This meant checking every hotel, dry cleaner, lost property office and railway station for miles around. But it did produce results. On the 12th, detectives sent to the main railway station in Adelaide were shown a brown suitcase that had been deposited in the cloakroom there on November 30. The suitcase left by the dead man at Adelaide Station – with some of its perplexing contents The staff could remember nothing about the owner, and the case’s contents were not much more revealing. The case did contain a reel of orange thread identical to that used to repair the dead man’s trousers, but painstaking care had been applied to remove practically every trace of the owner’s identity. The case bore no stickers or markings, and a label had been torn off from one side. The tags were missing from all but three items of the clothing inside; these bore the name “Kean” or “T. Keane,” but it proved impossible to trace anyone of that name, and the police concluded–an Adelaide newspaper reported–that someone “had purposely left them on, knowing that the dead man’s name was not ‘Kean’ or ‘Keane.’ ” The remainder of the contents were equally inscrutable. There was a stencil kit of the sort “used by the Third Officer on merchant ships responsible for the stenciling of cargo”; a table knife with the haft cut down; and a coat stitched using a feather stitch unknown in Australia. A tailor identified the stitchwork as American in origin, suggesting that the coat, and perhaps its wearer, had traveled during the war years. But searches of shipping and immigration records from across the country again produced no likely leads. The police had brought in another expert, John Cleland, emeritus professor of pathology at the University of Adelaide, to re-examine the corpse and the dead man’s possessions. In April, four months after the discovery of the body, Cleland’s search produced a final piece of evidence—one that would prove to be the most baffling of all. Cleland discovered a small pocket sewn into the waistband of the dead man’s trousers. Previous examiners had missed it, and several accounts of the case have referred to it as a “secret pocket,” but it seems to have been intended to hold a fob watch. Inside, tightly rolled, was a minute scrap of paper, which, opened up, proved to contain two words, typeset in an elaborate printed script. The phrase read “Tamám Shud.” The scrap of paper discovered in a concealed pocket in the dead man's trousers. 'Tamám shud' is a Persian phrase; it means 'It is ended.' The words had been torn from a rare New Zealand edition of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Frank Kennedy, the police reporter for the Adelaide Advertiser, recognized the words as Persian, and telephoned the police to suggest they obtain a copy of a book of poetry—the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. This work, written in the twelfth century, had become popular in Australia during the war years in a much-loved translation by Edward FitzGerald. It existed in numerous editions, but the usual intricate police enquiries to libraries, publishers and bookshops failed to find one that matched the fancy type. At least it was possible, however, to say that the words “Tamám shud” (or “Taman shud,” as several newspapers misprinted it—a mistake perpetuated ever since) did come from Khayyam’s romantic reflections on life and mortality. They were, in fact, the last words in most English translations— not surprisingly, because the phrase means “It is ended.” Taken at face value, this new clue suggested that the death might be a case of suicide; in fact, the South Australia police never did turn their “missing person” enquiries into a full-blown murder investigation. But the discovery took them no closer to identifying the dead man, and in the meantime his body had begun to decompose. Arrangements were made for a burial, but—conscious that they were disposing of one of the few pieces of evidence they had—the police first had the corpse embalmed, and a cast taken of the head and upper torso. After that, the body was buried, sealed under concrete in a plot of dry ground specifically chosen in case it became necessary to exhume it. As late as 1978, flowers would be found at odd intervals on the grave, but no one could ascertain who had left them there, or why. The dead man's copy of the Rubaiyat, from a contemporary press photo. No other copy of the book matching this one has ever been located. In July, fully eight months after the investigation had begun, the search for the right Rubaiyat produced results. On the 23rd, a Glenelg man walked into the Detective Office in Adelaide with a copy of the book and a strange story. Early the previous December, just after the discovery of the unknown body, he had gone for a drive with his brother-in-law in a car he kept parked a few hundred yards from Somerton Beach. The brother-in-law had found a copy of the Rubaiyat lying on the floor by the rear seats. Each man had silently assumed it belonged to the other, and the book had sat in the glove compartment ever since. Alerted by a newspaper article about the search, the two men had gone back to take a closer look. They found that part of the final page had been torn out, together with Khayyam’s final words. They went to the police. Detective Sergeant Lionel Leane took a close look at the book. Almost at once he found a telephone number penciled on the rear cover; using a magnifying glass, he dimly made out the faint impression of some other letters, written in capitals underneath. Here, at last, was a solid clue to go on. The phone number was unlisted, but it proved to belong to a young nurse who lived near Somerton Beach. Like the two Glenelg men, she has never been publicly identified—the South Australia police of 1949 were disappointingly willing to protect witnesses embarrassed to be linked to the case—and she is now known only by her nickname, Jestyn. Reluctantly, it seemed (perhaps because she was living with the man who would become her husband), the nurse admitted that she had indeed presented a copy of the Rubaiyat to a man she had known during the war. She gave the detectives his name: Alfred Boxall. At last the police felt confident that they had solved the mystery. Boxall, surely, was the Unknown Man. Within days they traced his home to Maroubra, New South Wales. The problem was that Boxall turned out to be still alive, and he still had the copy of the Rubaiyat Jestyn had given him. It bore the nurse’s inscription, but was completely intact. The scrap of paper hidden in the dead man’s pocket must have come from somewhere else. It might have helped if the South Australia police had felt able to question Jestyn closely, but it is clear that they did not. The gentle probing that the nurse received did yield some intriguing bits of information; interviewed again, she recalled that some time the previous year—she could not be certain of the date—she had come home to be told by neighbors than an unknown man had called and asked for her. And, confronted with the cast of the dead man’s face, Jestyn seemed “completely taken aback, to the point of giving the appearance she was about to faint,” Leane said. She seemed to recognize the man, yet firmly denied that he was anyone she knew. The code revealed by examination of the dead man's Rubaiyat under ultraviolet light. It has yet to be cracked. That left the faint impression Sergeant Leane had noticed in the Glenelg Rubaiyat. Examined under ultraviolet light, five lines of jumbled letters could be seen, the second of which had been crossed out. The first three were separated from the last two by a pair of straight lines with an ‘x’ written over them. It seemed that they were some sort of code. Breaking a code from only a small fragment of text is exceedingly difficult, but the police did their best. They sent the message to Naval Intelligence, home to the finest cipher experts in Australia, and allowed the message to be published in the press. This produced a frenzy of amateur codebreaking, almost all of it worthless, and a message from the Navy concluding that the code appeared unbreakable: From the manner in which the lines have been represented as being set out in the original, it is evident that the end of each line indicates a break in sense. There is an insufficient number of letters for definite conclusions to be based on analysis, but the indications together with the acceptance of the above breaks in sense indicate, in so far as can be seen, that the letters do not constitute any kind of simple cipher or code. The frequency of the occurrence of letters, whilst inconclusive, corresponds more favourably with the table of frequencies of initial letters of words in English than with any other table; accordingly a reasonable explanation would be that the lines are the initial letters of words of a verse of poetry or such like. And there, to all intents and purposes, the mystery rested. The Australian police never cracked the code or identified the unknown man. Jestyn died a few years ago without revealing why she had seemed likely to faint when confronted with a likeness of the dead man’s face. And when the South Australia coroner published the final results of his investigation in 1958, his report concluded with the admission: I am unable to say who the deceased was… I am unable to say how he died or what was the cause of death. In recent years, though, the Tamám Shud case has begun to attract new attention. Amateur sleuths have probed at the loose ends left by the police, solving one or two minor mysteries but often creating new ones in their stead. And two especially persistent investigators—retired Australian policeman Gerry Feltus, author of the only book yet published on the case, and Professor Derek Abbott of the University of Adelaide—have made particularly useful progress. Both freely admit they have not solved mystery—but let’s close by looking briefly at the remaining puzzles and leading theories. First, the man’s identity remains unknown. It is generally presumed that he was known to Jestyn, and may well have been the man who called at her apartment, but even if he was not, the nurse’s shocked response when confronted with the body cast was telling. Might the solution be found in her activities during World War II? Was she in the habit of presenting men friends with copies of the Rubaiyat, and, if so, might the dead man have been a former boyfriend, or more, whom she did not wish to confess to knowing? Abbott’s researches certainly suggest as much, for he has traced Jestyn’s identity and discovered that she had a son. Minute analysis of the surviving photos of the Unknown Man and Jestyn’s child reveals intriguing similarities. Might the dead man have been the father of the son? If so, could he have killed himself when told he could not see them? Those who argue against this theory point to the cause of the man’s death. How credible is it, they say, that someone would commit suicide by dosing himself with a poison of real rarity? Digitalis, and even strophanthin, can be had from pharmacies, but never off the shelf—both poisons are muscle relaxants used to treat heart disease. The apparently exotic nature of the death suggests, to these theorists, that the Unknown Man was possibly a spy. Alfred Boxall had worked in intelligence during the war, and the Unknown Man died, after all, at the onset of the Cold War, and at a time when the British rocket testing facility at Woomera, a few hundred miles from Adelaide, was one of the most secret bases in the world. It has even been suggested that poison was administered to him via his tobacco. Might this explain the mystery of why his Army Club pack contained seven Kensitas cigarettes? Far-fetched as this seems, there are two more genuinely odd things about the mystery of Tamám Shud that point away from anything so mundane as suicide. The first is the apparent impossibility of locating an exact duplicate of the Rubaiyat handed in to the police in July 1949. Exhaustive enquiries by Gerry Feltus at last tracked down a near-identical version, with the same cover, published by a New Zealand bookstore chain named Whitcombe & Tombs. But it was published in a squarer format. Add to that one of Derek Abbott’s leads, and the puzzle gets yet more peculiar. Abbott has discovered that at least one other man died in Australia after the war with a copy of Khayyam’s poems close by him. This man’s name was George Marshall, he was a Jewish immigrant from Singapore, and his copy of the Rubaiyat was published in London by Methuen— a seventh edition. So far, so not especially peculiar. But inquiries to the publisher, and to libraries around the world, suggest that there were never more than five editions of Methuen’s Rubaiyat—which means that Marshall’s seventh edition was as nonexistent as the Unknown Man’s Whitcombe & Tombs appears to be. Might the books not have been books at all, but disguised spy gear of some sort—say one-time code pads? Which brings us to the final mystery. Going through the police file on the case, Gerry Feltus stumbled across a neglected piece of evidence: a statement, given in 1959, by a man who had been on Somerton Beach. There, on the evening that the Unknown Man expired, and walking toward the spot where his body was found, the witness (a police report stated) “saw a man carrying another on his shoulder, near the water’s edge. He could not describe the man.” At the time, this did not seem that mysterious; the witness assumed he’d seen somebody carrying a drunken friend. Looked at in the cold light of day, though, it raises questions. After all, none of the people who saw a man lying on the seafront earlier had noticed his face. Might he not have been the Unknown Man at all? Might the body found next morning have been the one seen on the stranger’s shoulder? And, if so, might this conceivably suggest this really was a case involving spies—and murder?
Eochu Uairches 633-621 BC: Eochu Uairches was an Irish high king, that is reported to have left Ireland for 12 years, during the second halve of the 600's BC. Apparently he left Ireland in a fleet, to wage war and plunder neighbouring countries. Now this might appear to just be trivial and unimportant legend, but, in actual fact, just this little snippet of information may be more indicative and consistan with the happenings going on in the world around this time. And this is what i hope to highlight in this article. Eochu Uairches
Eochu (or Eochaid) Uairches, son of Lugaid Íardonn, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. After Lugaid was overthrown and killed by Sírlám, Eochu was driven into exile overseas, but he returned after twelve years, killed Sírlám with an arrow, and took the throne. His epithet is obscure: the Lebor Gabála Érenn says he gained it because of his exile, while Geoffrey Keating explains it as meaning "bare canoes", because he had canoes for a fleet, in which he and his followers used to plunder neighbouring countries.
Link for photo Tara stone (biography) Kaska invasion: Now, it is likely that were Eochu Uairches went, is connected to a war which began in around 1450 BC with the kaska invasion. As has already been established on other threads, the Egyptian pharoah Ahmose I, in 1549 BC, led a native Egyptian uprising against foreign rulers in Egypt, and expelled them from Egypt, and continued chasing them northwards, under Thutmose III. In response to this, the Indo-Aryan Hittite empire came up from South Asia, and down from Northern parts of europe, and made Anatolia the base for their war on Egypt, when, for whatever reason, the Greeks seemingly allied themselves with Egypt, and began attacking the Hittite empire. The first attack was the Kaska invasion. The Kaska invasion was conducted by indigenous Greeks/Romans, as Anatolia was the land that is modern day Turkey, and the Greeks would have felt that this land belonged to them. Early history
The Kaska, probably originating from the eastern shore of the Propontis, may have displaced the speakers of the Palaic language from their home in Pala). The Kaska first appear in the Hittite prayer inscriptions that date from the reign of Hantili II, c. 1450 BC, and make references to their movement into the ruins of the holy city of Nerik. During the reign of Hantili's son, Tudhaliya II (c. 1430 BC), "Tudhaliya's 3rd campaign was against the Kaskas." His successor Arnuwanda I composed a prayer for the gods to return Nerik to the empire; he also mentioned Kammama and Zalpuwa as cities which he claimed had been Hittite but which were now under the Kaskas.
Link for photo Anatolia Hittite counter attack: Now, as has already been established, the Hittites hit back, and won the war. But, in fact, the war would continue from this moment on, probably right up until the time of the Roman empire, if not beyond. Early history
Tudhaliya III and Suppiluliuma (c. 1375–1350 BC) set up their court in Samuha and invaded Azzi-Hayasa from there. The Kaska intervened, but Suppiluliuma defeated them; after Suppiluliuma had fully pacified the region, Tudhaliya and Suppiluliuma were able to move on Hayasa and defeat it too, despite some devastating guerrilla tactics at their rear. Some twelve tribes of Kaska then united under Piyapili, but Piyapili was no match for Suppiluliuma. Eventually, Tudhaliya and Suppiluliuma returned Hattusa to the Hittites. But the Kaska continued to be a menace both inside and out and a constant military threat. They are said to have fielded as many as 9,000 warriors and 800 chariots.
Arzawa revolt: The Kaska war would be continued with the Arzawa revolt, when this time, subjugated native Greeks/Romans would rise up against the Hittites. Involvement in Asia minor
In c. 1400 BC, Hittite records mention the military activities of an Ahhiyawan warlord, Attarsiya, a possible Hittite way of writing the Greek name Atreus, who attacked Hittite vassals in western Anatolia. Later, in c. 1315 BC, an anti-Hittite rebellion headed by Arzawa, a Hittite vassal state, received support from Ahhiyawa. Meanwhile, Ahhiyawa appears to be in control of a number of islands in the Aegean, an impression also supported by archaeological evidence.
Link for photo Middle east Mycenaean collapse: However, the end result of the Arzawa revolt was not good for the native Greeks/Romans, that found themselves having to flee their homeland and seek refuge on the islands of the Mede, as the Northerners they had tried to remove from Anatolia, had responded with an almost total conquest of Greek mainland. Final collapse
None of the defence measures appear to have prevented the final destruction and collapse of the Mycenaean states. A second destruction struck Mycenae in c. 1190 BC or shortly thereafter. This event marked the end of Mycenae as a major power. The site was then reoccupied, but on a smaller scale. The palace of Pylos, in the southwestern Peloponnese, was destroyed in c. 1180 BC. The Linear B archives found there, preserved by the heat of the fire that destroyed the palace, mention hasty defence preparations due to an imminent attack without giving any detail about the attacking force. As a result of this turmoil, specific regions in mainland Greece witnessed a dramatic population decrease, especially Boeotia, Argolis and Messenia. Mycenaean refugees migrated to Cyprus and the Levantine coast. Nevertheless, other regions on the edge of the Mycenaean world prospered, such as the Ionian islands, the northwestern Peloponnese, parts of Attica and a number of Aegean islands. The acropolis of Athens, oddly, appears to have avoided destruction.
Link for photo Mycenaean depopulation Fall of Hittite empire: The Hittites would eventually be removed from Mesopotamia. But not by the Greeks. It would be the Neo-Assyrians that would send the Hittites out of Mesopotamia. Hittites
Link for photo Asia minor Scoloti: However the Hittites would only retreat to the otherside of the Black sea, were they would become known as the Scoloti, and would join forces with the Cimmerians. Scythians
Link for photo Scythia War of the Medes: The fallen Hittites would now retreat to the otherside of the Black sea, and turn their focus purely on conquering Greece. Scythians
In the 7th century BC, the Scythians crossed the Caucasus and frequently raided the Middle East along with the Cimmerians, playing an important role in the political developments of the region. Around 650–630 BC, Scythians briefly dominated the Medes of the western Iranian Plateau,
Link for photo Scoloti comb Welshmen: Contemporary scholars now agree, that the Scolotis partners in crime, the "Cimmerian", is from the root word Cymru, which is the ancient name for Wales. legacy
Early modern historians asserted Cimmerian descent for the Celts or the Germans, arguing from the similarity of Cimmerii to Cimbri or Cymry. The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th-century Celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists as being derived from a Brythonic word *kom-brogos, meaning "compatriot".[21
The First Messenian War was a war between Messenia and Sparta. It began in 743 BC and ended in 724 BC, according to the dates given by Pausanias). The war continued the rivalry between the Achaeans) and the Dorians that had been initiated by the purported Return of the Heracleidae. Both sides utilized an explosive incident to settle the rivalry by full-scale war. The war was prolonged into 20 years. The result was a Spartan victory. Messenia was depopulated by emigration of the Achaeans to other states. Those who did not emigrate were reduced socially to helots, or serfs. Their descendants were held in hereditary subjection for centuries until the Spartan state finally needed them for defense.
Link for photo Messenian Greece Dorians: Now this is where confusion sets in. The Trojan horse effect. You see, the Dorians that invaded Sparta from the North, pushed the indigenous Spartans out to the Medesm and the Dorians assumed the name "Spartans", in the place of the original Spartans. This means, that because we now have Spartans fighting Medians, people think that the Spartans are the Greeks, and the Medians are the foreigners. But this is not the case. The Spartans are actually the Dorians. The Dorians carried the flag that had originally belonged to the very people they were expelling from Greece. Dark ages
The earliest certain evidence of human settlement in the region of Sparta consists of pottery dating from the Middle Neolithic period, found in the vicinity of Kouphovouno some two kilometres (1.2 miles) south-southwest of Sparta. These are the earliest traces of the original Mycenaean Spartan civilisation represented in Homer's Iliad. This civilization seems to have fallen into decline by the late Bronze Age, when, according to Herodotus, Macedonian tribes from the north (called Dorians by those they conquered) marched into the Peloponnese and, subjugating the local tribes, settled there. The Dorians seem to have set about expanding the frontiers of Spartan territory almost before they had established their own state.
Link for photo False flag Second Messenian war: One of the biggest mistakes the Spartans made, was expelling the Messenians from their homeland. I will reveal why shortly. However the second Messenian war has a great deal to do with why. You see, the Romans had until now, been completely demolished by the Dorians/Scythians/Hittites/Spartans, whatever you want to call them, but in around 660 BC they re-emerged on Greek mainland and began to fight back. They actually won a battle, and began pushing the "Spartans" out, but the Spartans did regain their composure and won the war. At least, for now. War
Furthermore, the Spartans were able to quell the revolts following the death of the Argive commander. With the aid and support of the Athenian schoolmaster and poet Tyrtaeus, the Spartan Army was able to crush the Messenians and re-establish their helot status. As a result of this war, Spartan society became a strong militaristic power in the Mediterranean in order to control the masses along the Peloponnese and to prevent further rebellions brought on by the helots who later did manage to break away from Spartan rule around 350 BC.
Bakenranef: Now, do you remember i said that one of the biggest mistakes the Dorians made was expelling the Romans to the Medes? Well here is why. The Romans would re-emerge in Italy, according to Egyptian pharoah Bakenranef in 725 BC. The Romans first arrived in the Bay of Naples. Bakenranef
, "Perhaps some Greeks, unknown to us, had had close dealings with him; from his reign we have scarab-seals bearing his Egyptian name, one of which found its way into a contemporary Greek grave on Ischia up near the Bay of Naples." Ischia was the earliest of eighth-century BC Greek colonies in Italy.
The Latin League (c. 7th century BC – 338 BC) was an ancient confederation of about 30 villages and tribes in the region of Latium near the ancient city of Rome, organized for mutual defense. The term "Latin League" is one coined by modern historians with no precise Latin equivalent.
Link for photo Cities of the Latin league Roman republic: Now the Romans would eventually invade the territory of the Latin league, and create the Roman republic. And the Romans were not Latins. As we have already established on other threads, Latin is a language the Greeks got from Dorians. Dorians, would of course, be part of the Latin league, which has it's capital and Alba Longa, 12 miles outside Rome. Roman leadership of Latin league
During the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, the Latins were persuaded to acknowledge the leadership of Rome.
Latin league Etrusans, no: And no, the Etruscans had nothing to do with the Latin league. The Etruscans allied themselves with the Romans against the Latins, and the Latin league was an enemy of the Etruscans. Latin league creation
It was originally created for protection against enemies from surrounding areas (the Etruscans) under the leadership of the city of Alba Longa.
Roman republic: The Greco-Romans were successful in overthrowing the Roman kingdom of the Latin league, and the created the Roman republic, which later evolved in to the Roman empire. Roman republic
Link for photo Massalia coins in Gaul Gaul: Now, Gaul was a Celtic colony. It covered most of France and Northern Italy before the Greco-Roman invasion, and expanded to include other parts too, including Greece. But this period, marked the beginning of a Celtic depopulation from mainland europe. Gaul
Covering large parts of modern-day France, Belgium, northwest Germany and northern Italy, Gaul was inhabited by many Celtic and Belgae tribes whom the Romans referred to as Gauls and who spoke the Gaulish language roughly between the Oise) and the Garonne (Gallia Celtica), according to Julius Caesar.
Link for photo End of Celtic expansion Summary: Now as we have already established on other threads, the Gaulish language was Gaelic, and Irish people were Gaelic speakers. Therefore, the Irish high kings likely had a lot of interests in Italy and France. So if we suddenly had Irish high kings taking off in a fleet of boats around this period, to wage war and plunder, then it would be likely they were going to war with the Greco-Romans in Italy and France.
Link for photo Amber road 1900 BC: The earliest time frame given for the construction of Amber routes in europe, comes from Britannica encyclopedia, and the earliest attestation is 1900 BC Britannica
Amber Routes, earliest roads in Europe, probably used between 1900 BC and 300 BC
Now whilst the Amber road probably did originally begin as one Amber road, it quickly developed in to Amber routes. From Ulster, to Wales. From Edinburgh, to London From London to France From France to Hiberia/Iberia From Oslo or Helsinki to Scicily From Paris to Russia. From Russia to Athens. From Scicily to Tunisia. Link for photo Amber routes Silk road: Eventually, the Silk road would be built, and finally it would be possible for China to trade with Norway, or even London. Even Gibraltar. But this is where mystery sets in. We know who built the Silk road. The Hans chinese built it between 220 BC and 114 BC Silk road
The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning in the Han dynasty in China (207 BCE–220 CE). The Han dynasty expanded the Central Asian section of the trade routes around 114 BCE
Link for photo Silk road Persian royal road: And we know who built the Persian royal road in 500 BC. That was built by the persian Achaemenid empire, and persians are descended from Aryans. Achaemenid empire)
It was maintained and protected by the Achaemenid Empire (c. 500–330 BCE)
Fir Bolg: But who built the Amber routes which the Silk road connected too? This brings me to Irish mythology. According to Irish mythology, there was an Irish clan known as the Fir Bolg which travelled to Greece. Fir Bolg
In medieval Irish myth, the Fir Bolg (also spelt Firbolg and Fir Bholg) are the fourth group of people to settle in Ireland. They are descended from the Muintir Nemid, an earlier group who abandoned Ireland and went to different parts of Europe. Those who went to Greece became the Fir Bolg
Men of bags: According to Irish mythology, the Fir Bolg were labourers whos job it was to carry bags of soil and clay, and the name "Fir Bolg" means "men of bags". Myth
The LGÉ says that they were enslaved by the Greeks and made to carry bags of soil or clay, hence the name 'Fir Bolg' (men of bags).
Britannica encyclopedia: According to the Britannica ancyclopedia, the Amber routes were built using logs, and soil. Though Amber routes built prior to 1500 BC were built using sand and sod. Amber roads
They were constructed by laying two or three strings of logs in the direction of the road on a bed of branches and boughs up to 20 feet (6 metres) wide. This layer was then covered with a layer of transverse logs 9 to 12 feet in length laid side by side. In the best log roads, every fifth or sixth log was fastened to the underlying subsoil with pegs. There is evidence that the older log roads were built prior to 1500 BC. They were maintained in a level state by being covered with sand and gravel or sod.
Slept out doors: It would also appear, that the Fir Bolg slept outdoors, on rocky land, which would be consistant with always being on the move. Myth
The Cét-chath Maige Tuired says that they were forced to settle on poor, rocky land but that they made it into fertile fields by dumping great amounts of soil on it.
Thebes: Now Irish legend traces the Fir-Bolg as far as Greece, and of course the legendary city of Greece at the time, was Thebes. Thebes
Horus military road: Therefore, it would appear likely that any Fir-Bolg going to Thebes, were likely going to Thebes in Egypt, as opposed to a semi usurped Thebes, in Greece, and this would make it likely that the Fir-Bolg may have even constructed the Horus military road, which connected Canaan to the lower cataracts of Egypt. Tjaru
Link for photo Gold of the North Gold of the North: Therefore, it is likely, that the original Amber road, was not given the nickname "gold of the North", because it depicted the colour of Amber, but in fact, because Gold was what was being transported back up the road in the opposite direction to Amber. Gold possibly travelled as far North as what would be modern day Ulster. Amber road may refer only to goods being transported southward. Amber road
As an important commodity, sometimes dubbed "the gold of the north", amber was transported from the North Sea and Baltic Sea coasts overland by way of the Vistula and Dnieper rivers to Italy, Greece, the Black Sea, Syria and Egypt over a period of thousands of years.
Hyksos: Now according to Irish mythology, the Fir-Bolg left Greece at the same-time as the Israelites left Egypt. Myth
1549 BC: Therefore, this would be approximately 1549 BC, as that is when Ahmose I from Thebes toppled the Canaanite Hyksos and sent them back to Canaan. Ahmose I
Ahmose I (Ancient Egyptian: jꜥḥms(j.w), reconstructed /ʔaʀaħ'ma:sjə/ (MK), Egyptological pronunciationAhmose, sometimes written as Amosis or Aahmes, meaning "Iah (the Moon) is born") was a pharaoh and founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the era in which ancient Egypt achieved the peak of its power. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, Kamose. During the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven years old, his father was killed, and he was about ten when his brother died of unknown causes after reigning only three years. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother, and upon coronation became known as nb-pḥtj-rꜥ "The Lord of Strength is Ra". During his reign, Ahmose completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the Nile Delta, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.
Link for photo Ahmose I Hiberia/Iberia So, following Irish legend, the Fir-Bolg leave Thebes around 1549 BC, and sail to Iberia in a great fleet. Iberia is of course the land of modern day Gibraltar, Portugal, Spian, and southern parts of France. Iberia
The word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originating in the Ancient Greek
Hiberians: The Romans referred to inhabitants of this land, as "Hiberians". Roman names
The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia, literally translates to "land of the Hiberians". This word was derived from the river Ebro, which the Romans called Hiberus. Hiber (Iberian) was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro.[5
Hibernia: And of course, Hibernia was the old name for Ireland. Hibernia
Link for photo Hibernia Great conspiracy of 367 AD: Of course, any "Scotti" that fought alongside the Irish contingent of the Germanic unification during the uprisings against the Roman empire in 367 ad, would have been "Hibernians". The conspiracy
Ancient order of Hibernians: Therefore, the Ancient order of Hibernians, likely pre-dates the 1836 foundations in new york, after the plantations of Ulster, and is a bit more ancient than that. Ancient order of Hibernians
Link to photo Ancient order of Hibernians Hiberno-phobia: Now i am not saying that the Amber routes were built by the Irish. I am sure there were more people than that involved. But there may be evidence to suggest that the Fir-Bolg were at least a little bit involved in something like this. Though i would argue it is more likely that they went to Thebes in Waset, rather than Thebes in Greece. But to say that the Fir-Bolg definitely had no part in this, and all this was built by ancient Greek Thebans, may be simply usurpation, or, Hiberno-phobia. Hiberno-phobia
1514-1513 BC: The date given for this return, is 1514 BC 1514bc Summary: So the timing is perfect. Calcolithic: And the AOH catholic society, likely pre-dates Catholicism, and is likely Calcolithic. Calcolithic
2020.08.15 10:03 RojasBenitez1975Doctor Who Reviews – The Waters of Mars (Spoilers)
Earlier Reviews The Doctor discovers the answer to that old question, “Is there life on Mars?” Unfortunately, it wants to kill him! In many ways, The Waters of Mars has a very 1960s feel. A base on a hostile environment, a multinational crew who are initially suspicious of the Doctor, and an alien virus infecting the personnel, we could be talking about 1967’s The Moonbase. But where the earlier story was merely a backdrop to another Cyberman plot to take over the Earth, The Waters of Mars tells a totally different tale, looking at the fixed nature of historical events. In The Aztecs, the locals believe Barbara is the reincarnation of a dead Priest and she uses her position in society to try and make them abandon their practice of human sacrifice, the Doctor ties to dissuade her, in the process giving one of the most quoted lines in Doctor Who history – “you can’t rewrite history, not one line.” It wasn’t long however before the show was showing history as more malleable as the Doctor gives Nero the idea for the Great Fire of Rome (The Romans) and designs the Trojan Horse for the Greeks (The Myth Makers). In The Time Meddler, the Meddling Monk threatens to rewrite history by arranging for King Harold to win the Battle of Hastings; rather than treating this as a ridiculous idea, the Doctor sees it as his business to defeat the Monk and “prevent this disgusting exhibition!”. After The Highlanders in 1967, historical stories fell out of favour, so the issue of changing history took a backseat to fighting alien threats, but in 1976’s Pyramids of Mars, the issue was discussed again. In 1911, an Egyptian God named Sutekh threatens to destroy the whole of existence, Sarah Jane asks the not unreasonable question, as she’s from 1980 (argh – UNIT dating!), they “know the world didn’t end in 1911.” The Doctor takes her forward in time to show her a devastated Earth and explains that “the actions of the present fashion the future.” The new series introduced the concept of fixed points in time, as the Tenth Doctor said when he landed in Pompeii, it’s “a fixed point in history. What happens, happens. There is no stopping it.” As a Time Lord, the Doctor has a special knowledge of time, “I can see what is, what was, what could be, what must not be.” But even in Pompeii, there’s some wriggle room, because it’s shown that the Doctor actually caused the eruption when defeating an alien threat and after pressure from Donna, he chooses to save Peter Capaldi and his family. This idea of a fixed point is both the biggest strength and the biggest weakness of The Waters of Mars. After arriving at Bowie Base One and meeting the crew the Doctor realises that they are part of a doomed expedition, a series of obituaries from the BBC internet site flash on screen as the Doctor recites the names of the crew, a sequence that makes us wonder if the Doctor only knows the future from browsing the internet! The Doctor’s response to discovering his location is to say “I’m sorry. Er, I’d love to help, but I’m leaving right now.” And throughout the bulk of this story, the Doctor’s one desire is to get as far away from the base as he possibly can. I think it’s something that always bugs me about The Waters of Mars and stops me seeing it as the classic it’s commonly accepted to be. I want to see the Doctor behaving in an in-character way and fighting to save the people on the base, I don’t want a Doctor who decides to run away, only changing his mind at the very end. But the fixed point also gives The Waters of Mars a fantastic atmosphere, because we know that the crew are doomed but we want to see how events play out to cause the destruction. The cause of the disaster is simple but effective, a water filter breaks allowing an alien organism to infect a crew member. The production team must have been tempted to go big on the CGI infection, but instead the transformation is shown by the crew member shaking uncontrollably, before water pours from their bodies. I think in this instance simple is best, because the scenes where the crew members transform are really chilling. The science behind the threat is of course nonsense, because there’s no way a human body could produce that much water, but this doesn’t matter because unlike some recent stories, we’re only having to believe one impossible thing before breakfast. The Doctor sells the threat in one of the most memorable lines from the episode, “Water is patient…It wears down the clifftops, the mountains, the whole of the world. Water always wins.” In The Moonbase, the bulk of studio was taken upon by a central dome that looked impressive for its time, however with a 21st Century Budget and CGI, Bowie Base looks incredible. The first infections occur in the hydroponics dome, filmed in the National Botanic Garden of Wales, but this is merely part of a larger complex, all set against a realistic-looking Martian landscape. The commander of Bowie Base, Adelaide Brooke is this story’s companion of the week and what a difference to Lady Christina. Christina was almost too aware of her companion status and spent the whole of Planet of the Dead as if she was auditioning for a journey in the TARDIS, Adelaide on the other hand, is focused on saving her crew and isn’t worried about smarming up to the Doctor. In fact with Adelaide, there’s the question - why would she have any sort of relationship with the Doctor, but this is answered when the Doctor makes it obvious that he has special knowledge about her – “That’s the Adelaide Brooke I always wanted to meet” he says, early in their acquaintanceship, “The woman with starlight in her soul” Lindsay Duncan, who plays Adelaide, is an incredibly experienced actress and she works really well with David Tennant. Whereas Lady Christina just had to hang out with the Doctor, Adelaide has to lead her crew as well as fulfilling the companion role. This balancing of roles leads to one of the best moments in the episode. As the infection spreads, Adelaide orders the evacuation of the base and allows the Doctor to leave. As the crew struggle to pack all their essential supplies, the Doctor stands there motionless, David Tennant perfectly conveying the helplessness his character feels. He then moves to leave but Adelaide locks him in the airlock and her voice comes over the comms, “Tell me what happens.” she says to the Doctor, wanting the Doctor’s knowledge to save her crew, so the Doctor tells her the future. As a child, during the Dalek Invasion we saw in The Stolen Earth, a Dalek had the chance to exterminate her but didn’t. The Doctor says this is because Adelaide’s death is a fixed point in time, her death will take place “Today, on the twenty first of November 2059” when she will detonate an atomic device which destroys the base. But the Doctor gives Adelaide hope, telling her that her sacrifice will inspire her granddaughter to become an astronaut and she will be “the pilot of the first lightspeed ship to Proxima Centauri”. Convinced by his words, Adelaide allows the Doctor to leave the base. The moments as the crew fight desperately to change history are where The Waters of Mars absolutely shines and this is due to some clever writing, because although the Doctor has told us that they’re doomed, as Adelaide leads her crew it seems like there’s no way they won’t escape. The rocket is prepped and ready to go and the crew are making their way there when the water finds its way into the base. Living in England, I take downpours very much for granted, but the knowledge that one drop is enough to infect and kill you makes this really tense. There’s a touching moment where a single droplet of water lands on the young technician Roman, and you see him steeling himself to be brave before telling Adelaide that she’ll have to leave him behind. The escape fails when one of the infected humans enters the space shuttle and fires a jet of water at its pilot, Ed the deputy commander. As the infection transforms his body, he triggers the destruction of the ship and the force of the explosion knocks the Doctor (who is outside the base) off his feet. We hear the Doctor’s voice reflecting upon the things that he has lost and the reality of being “the Last of the Time Lords” and he makes the decision to return to the base. There’s another messianic moment as the Doctor steps through the airlock door back into the base with a white light shining behind him, but unfortunately the resolution is slightly mishandled. What’s the point of this story? If we look at it thematically it’s really about hubris and nemesis. The Doctor believes he can’t change history, then decides that as the “Time Lord Victorious” he can do whatever he wants, only to be proven wrong. The key moment is the Doctor making the decision to save Adelaide, but this is lost as we see the Doctor trying to think of a way to save everyone, then piloting a comedy robot (“Gadget-Gadget”) by remote-control across the surface of Mars to bring him the TARDIS. The Doctor returning to the base is an epic moment, the rest is really just filler and it would have been more dramatic to skip straight to the base exploding and then to the return to Earth. The Doctor takes Adelaide (and two supporting characters who quickly make their excuses and leave) back to Earth, where the Doctor explains his justification for changing time, “For a long time now, I thought I was just a survivor, but I’m not. I’m the winner…The Time Lord Victorious.” It’s Adelaide who shows him that he’s wrong, by changing her future, “the whole of history could change, the future of the human race. No-one should have that much power.” And Adelaide puts history back on course by committing suicide. Up pops the BBC Internet to show us that her granddaughter still fulfilled her destiny. I’m always a bit ambivalent about these final moments, it’s a dramatic scene well-acted by Tennant and Lindsay Duncan as you would expect, but I don’t really buy Adelaide’s sacrifice and that’s because the rational part of my brain thinks her corpse being discovered in her home, when she should be on Mars, is much more likely to damage the timelines than if Adelaide vanished to live a quiet life someone on Earth where no one knows who she is. The Waters of Mars is gripping and thought provoking, but the gap between a good story and a great one is sometimes very small and it’s the characterisation of the Doctor and the slightly mishandled escape that makes this an 8/10.
2020.08.14 04:47 LearningIsListeningA not-so-brief rundown of letters ‘T-V’ in Jeffrey Epstein's 'Little Black Book'
Below is a rundown of letters ‘T-V’ under Epstein's contacts. Last year, I wrote about letters A-C. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/cpis3n/a_brief_rundown_of_the_first_ten_pages_of_jeffrey/). I also wrote about letters D-F on July 5, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hlrba8/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_letters_df_in_jeffrey/). I posted letters G-I on July 13, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hqko0y/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_letters_gi_in_jeffrey/). I posted letters J-L on July 15, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hrq9bg/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_letters_jl_of_jeffrey/). I posted letter M on July 20, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/huw0yt/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_the_letter_m_in_jeffrey/). I posted letters N-Q on July 27, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/hyudbz/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_the_letters_nq_in_jeffrey/). There are some misspelled names. Epstein entered their names like this. I posted letter R on July 29, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/i0aqxd/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_the_letter_r_in_jeffrey/) I posted letter S on August 7, 2020. You can check that out here (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/i5orop/a_notsobrief_rundown_of_the_letter_s_in_jeffrey/) I have bolded some of the more interesting connections and information, but there could be much more that I overlooked. I hope something here strikes an interest in someone and maybe we can get more investigations out of this. Please, if you know anything more about any of these people than what is presented here, post below. I am working off of the unredacted black book found here: https://www.coreysdigs.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Jeffrey-Epsteins-Little-Black-Book-unredacted.pdf T Taaffee, Paul: Former Chairman and CEO of public relations firm Hill and Knowlton. Tabet, Karim & Cristina: Karim is a founding partner of TAP advisory group. A former Vice Chairman at UBS Investment Bank and Joint Global Head at UBS Telecommunications. The subtitle under the Tabets reads ‘65th Street Neighbors.’ Ghislaine Maxwell lived in a townhouse at 116 East 65th Street. Taki: Likely British journalist and Polanski apologist Taki Theodoracopulos. Taki wrote this interesting piece (https://www.gstaadlife.com/2009/11/taki-roman-orgy.html) in 2009 in which he throws Epstein under the bus while defending Polanski. Decades ago, Taki threw a party at The Savoy to celebrate the end of communism. Attendees included Ghislaine Maxwell and Imran Khan (https://greatgameindia.com/ghislaine-maxwell-arrested-fbi/). Talbot Williams, Simon: Businessman involved in real estate. Owns Talbot & Scott ltd, an investment and development agency. Tang, Mr David & Lucy Wastnag: David was a Hong Kong businessman who founded the Shanghai Tang fashion chain and several restaurants that attract the elite. Tang was a philanthropist who was involved in several charities, including Youth Outreach (YO), a charitable organization started in Hong Kong by Reverend Peter Newberry. This charity’s goal was to help at-risk youths (http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/hkedition/2017-09/15/content_32018378.htm). Tang was considered one of the most well-connected people in London. He and his wife, Lucy, counted Prince Andrew, Naomi Campbell, Sarah Ferguson, the Duchess of York (Prince Andrew’s ex-wife), Kevin Spacey, the Duke of Marlborough, and Mick Jagger among their friends (https://www.standard.co.uk/lifestyle/lucy-tang-on-top-the-highs-and-lows-of-a-party-girl-6540808.html). Tang vehemently defended Prince Andrew in 2011 when his relationship with Epstein was made public (https://www.standard.co.uk/lifestyle/theyve-been-tang-oed-sir-david-tang-sets-the-record-straight-6383974.html). Two years later, Ghislaine celebrated her 51st birthday at China Tang, David’s restaurant at the Dorchester Hotel. Despite the backlash Prince Andrew received for counting Epstein among his friends, he attended Ghislaine’s birthday, along with former Labour minister Shaun Woodward and wife Camilla, the Earl and Countess of Derby, Dorrit Moussaieff, the diamond heiress/wife of the president of Iceland, Tamara Beckwith, and John Eliasch, multi-millionaire boss of sports firm Head. Every single one of those people appear in Epstein’s contacts. Epstein had 16 phone numbers, two email addresses, and three street addresses listed under David and Lucy’s name. Tang died in 2017. Tate, Rupert: Two options. Either the former hedge fund manager at Merrill Lynch or the CEO of Bear Grylls Ventures. Taubman, Alfred: Billionaire real estate developer and former owner of Sotheby’s, where Les Wexner was once a board member. Many parties and book premieres attended by the elites have been hosted by Sotheby’s over the years. Taubman spent nearly one year in jail for price fixing in collusion with Christie’s auction house (https://www.latimes.com/local/obituaries/la-me-alfred-taubman-20150419-story.html). Taubman died in 2015. Taubman, Bobby: Alfred’s son who took over the family business. Tavoulareas, Mr Billy & Nicket: William Tavoulareas Jr. is an heir to his father, William Tavoulareas, a Greek petroleum businessman and former President and Chief Executive of Mobil Oil during the ‘70s and ‘80s. Sr. was a close friend of George H.W. Bush and Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou and was also a member of the Knights of Malta. William Jr. has not been so lucky. He has psychological problems and despite the fact that he has millions in a trust fund, he lives out of his car and has been involved in several dustups with the law in Palm Beach (https://www.townandcountrymag.com/society/news/a8979/william-tavoulareas-palm-beach/). Annick Finlan is Jr.’s ex-wife. Tavoulareas, Peter: Billy’s Tavoulareas brother and son of William Tavoulareas Sr. Heir to father’s petroleum fortune. Tayler, Emmy: Former personal assistant of Ghislaine Maxwell. Reportedly taught girls how to massage Epstein. Her name appears twice on Epstein’s Lolita Express flight logs (https://archive.org/stream/EpsteinFlightLogsLolitaExpress/Jeffrey-Epstein-Flight-Logs-in-PDF-format_djvu.txt). Recently fled the UK, but is presumably wanted for questioning (https://nypost.com/2020/08/10/emmy-tayler-maxwells-ex-personal-assistant-flees-uk-report/). Taylor, Felicia: Retired anchor for CNN’sWorld Business Today. Stepsister of Victoria (nee Schott) de Rothschild, Sir Evelyn Rothschild’s second wife. Felicia knew Epstein socially and once had tea at his mansion (https://www.newyorksocialdiary.com/the-world-and-all-its-changes/). Pictured here (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/felicia-taylor-steve-eichner-and-ghislaine-maxwell-attend-news-photo/659966292) with Ghislaine Maxwell at a Tommy Hilfiger hosted event in 2009. She is also the daughter of classic Hollywood actor Rod Taylor. Taylor, Pamela: Make-up artist with a bunch of A-list clients. Taylor, Sebastian: Not enough info. Likely refers to the personal friend of Nathaniel Rothschild (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2099639/The-Russian-oligarch-Old-Etonian-billionaire-deeply-disturbing-questions-Lord-Mandelsons-integrity.html), but I can’t be sure. There are two other decent possibilities. Taymor, Julie & Eliot: Julie is one of the most well-known theatre directors in the world. Responsible for the Broadway hit, Lion King. Elliot is Julie’s long-time partner. He is a film and theatre composer. Tennenbaum, Harry: No info found. Teodorani-Fabbri, Eduardo: A boss at Fiat motor company. Comes from the tremendously wealthy Agnelli family, who are the largest shareholders of The Economist (the Rothschilds also own a large portion). Eduardo used to date Tara Palmer-Tomkinson (listed earlier in Epstein’s contacts), the now deceased goddaughter of Prince Charles. Their first date was at an ARK charity dinner (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-1194485/KATIE-NICHOLL-TPT-swept-Fiat-car-boss-Eduardo--Tara-s-Mr-Right.html). ARK is a children’s charity that has spawned many schools for grades K-12. It was started by Arpad Busson (also listed in Jeffrey Epstein’s book), the former fiancee of Uma Thurman. Busson is likely steeped in child trafficking. I wrote a thread about him and ARK charity last year (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/cl34ju/arpad_busson_billionaire_businessman_or_possible/). Theilmann, Baroness Francesca: Publisher and art collector. Theodoli, Catherine: Katrin is the CEO of Magnum Marine Corporation, a performance and luxury yacht manufacturer. Tholstrup, Mogens: Former owner of Daphne’s, Pasha, and The Collection, three of London’s trendiest restaurants. Sold the restaurants for pounds 5.5m in 1998. Dated a series of high society girls, including Lady Victoria Hervey (former girlfriend and staunch defender of Prince Andrew) and Tara Palmer-Tomkinson. Tholstrup, Paola: A former model and the ex-wife of restaurateur Mogens Tholstrup (above). Pictured here (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/paola-tholstrup-ghislaine-maxwell-and-harry-nutall-attend-news-photo/73141620?adppopup=true) at a Chinese New Year celebration with Ghislaine Maxwell and Harry Nutall in 2007. Thompson, Barnaby: British film director, producer, and movie executive. Thompson ran Ealing Studios for 14 years. Barnaby has been photographed with a who’s who of Hollywood stars, royalty, and many people listed in Epstein’s contacts. He has attended parties hosted by Harvey Weinstein and Charles Finch, an interesting figure mentioned earlier (check my D-F thread) in Epstein’s black book (https://www.gettyimages.co.uk/photos/barnaby-thompson?family=editorial&page=2&phrase=barnaby%20thompson&sort=best). Tisch, David: Businessman who comes from a ridiculously rich family. His grandfather, Laurence Tisch, was the co-owner of Loews Corporation. His cousin, Steve, co-owns the New York Giants and has produced many big budget Hollywood movies. David made some good money in Silicon Valley startup companies. Tisch, Merryl & Jimmy: Merryl is the former Chancellor of the New York State Board of Regents and wife of James (Jimmy) Tisch. A huge proponent of high-stakes testing for adolescents. Her husband, James, is the heir to Loews Corporation. He currently serves as CEO. Tish, Anne & Andrew: Andrew is co-chair of Loews Corporation with his brother, James (mentioned above). Ann Rubenstein-Tisch is Andrew’s current wife. She is a former reporter for NBC. In 1996, Ann and Andrew partnered with the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) to open The Young Women’s Leadership School (TYWLS) of East Harlem, the first all-girls public school to open in the United States in 30 years (https://www.studentleadershipnetwork.org/history/). If you click on that link, you’ll immediately notice pictures of students with Oprah Winfrey and Hillary Clinton. The TYWLS has expanded and now comprises five schools (2800 students) and 16 sister schools (7000 students). Titopupolo, Sonia: No info found. Todhunter, Emily Olypitus: High-end British interior designer. Toledo Ignacio, Alvarez de: Likely a real estate developer. Not 100% certain. Tollman, Bea: Beatrice is a travel and hospitality businesswoman. Founder and President of the ritzy Red Carnation Hotel chain. Also has a large part in family-owned The Travel Corporation, which helps people organize/plan their trips. Tollman, Brett: Son of Beatrice Tollman (above). Travel and hotel executive also involved in the family business. CEO of The Travel Corporation and founder of The Treadright Foundation, a non-profit charity. Tollman, Mr & Mrs: This likely refers to Beatrice (above) and her husband, Stanley. Since I wrote about Beatrice earlier, I’ll focus on Stanley here, who is much more interesting. Stanley is a super shady businessman who is best known for being friends with Ken Bates (Chairman of Chelsea FC) and serving on the Board of the Chelsea FC soccer club, where he and Bates were partners with Marwan Ashraf, a senior Mossad agent. Tollman fled the US for the UK in the early 200s when he was convicted on 33 counts of embezzlement, fraud, and tax evasion (https://www.haaretz.com/1.4942945). Tollman, Syrie & Gavin: Gavin is CEO of Trafalgar tours and Chairman of The Travel Corporation. Nephew of Stanley Tollman (above) and cousin of Brett Tollman (above). Gavin is married to his first cousin, Toni. There is a fascinating blog post (https://www.nittanyturkey.com/2005/07/25/was-100-million-worth-it/comment-page-1/) about the Tollmans and Hundleys, who defrauded the government out of millions. Be sure to read the comments. Pretty much everyone who responded used to work for the company and knows the Tollmans to some extent and the inner workings behind their thievery. Tollman, Wyne: Wynn is Beatrice and Stanley’s son, but is not involved with the company. I could not find any other information on him. Toub, Veronica (Busson): Fashion designer and socialite who was engaged to possible child trafficker and pedophile Arpad Busson (https://www.reddit.com/conspiracy/comments/cl34ju/arpad_busson_billionaire_businessman_or_possible/) in the 1980s. Treacy, Phillip: Award-winning hat designer who has worked with the British Royalty (designed a hat for Princess Beatrice, Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, and Kate Middleton, Duchess of Cambridge), Oprah, Naomi Campbell, Daphne Guinness, Lady Gaga, and Madonna. Has also designed hats for the Harry Potter movies. Thirty-six of his hats were worn at the wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton. Twenty were worn at the wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle. Trump Blaine & Robert: Robert is the younger brother of Donald Trump. Manager of Trump Corporation and President of Trump Management On August 3, 2020, Robert wrote “Jeffrey Epstein is still alive” on his Twitter feed (https://twitter.com/UncleRobTrump/status/1290360605904232448). Blaine is Robert’s ex-wife of over 25 years. They divorced in 2007 when it was revealed that Robert had a mistress for whom he purchased a $4 million house in Garden City, NY. Blaine’s father was an executive at IBM. Trump, Ivana: Donald Trump’s ex-wife (1977-1992) and mother of Donald Jr., Ivanka, and Eric. After their divorce, Ivana accused her ex-husband, Donald, of rape. Trump’s lawyers claim that she did not want her words “to be interpreted in a literal or criminal sense.” One of the conditions of her divorce settlement was that she wouldn’t talk about their marriage without Donald’s approval. In this (timestamped) video interview (https://youtu.be/qN8938c8puE?t=251), Maria Farmer, the sister of Epstein victim Annie Farmer and former employee of Epstein and Ghislaine who went to the FBI with Epstein allegations in 1996, says that Ivana was possibly involved in procuring children, although she couldn’t confirm. Trump, Ivanka: Donald Trump’s daughter. Serves as Advisor to the President. Donates to Jewish charities and is a supporter of Israel, much like her father. Trump, Robert & Blaine: See ‘Trump Blaine & Robert’ above. Tucker, Chris: Famous actocomedian ofRush HourandFridayfame. Tucker was on the infamous Africa flight with Epstein, Bill Clinton, and Kevin Spacey. Turlington, Christy: Incredibly popular supermodel from the ‘80s and ‘90s who has worked for too many big name fashion designers and magazines to name. Jean-Luc Brunel, the (alleged) pedophile and child trafficker who sent three 12-year-old girls to Epstein for his birthday discovered Turlington and helped launch her career (https://nypost.com/2019/09/02/jeffrey-epsteins-model-scouting-pal-has-disappeared-without-a-trace/). Friends with fellow supermodel and all-around scumbag, Naomi Campbell, who is likely knee deep in Epstein’s child trafficking and pedophile ring. Turnbull, Governor Charles: Governor of the U.S. Virgin Islands from 1999-2007. Epstein’s Little Saint James island is located in the Virgin Islands. Turner, Jenny: There is an excellent Reddit thread (https://www.reddit.com/Epstein/comments/hnmwbg/jenny_turner_pseudonym/) fromu/rsarectorthat provides evidence that Jenny Turner is a pseudonym for Ghislaine Maxwell. Make sure to check out the posts further down the thread by aimhighairforce and DSyntax for more information. Turner, Miles Creswell: Investment banker who used to work for Deutsche Bank and HSBC. Interestingly enough, a man (Leo Iravanian) was arrested for harassment because Cresswell-Turner testified that traffic lights were not dangerous after Iravanian’s wife was killed by an Express coach. Iravanian continuously called Cresswell-Turner’s Marylebone office accusing Cresswell-Turner of being a paedophile (https://www.standard.co.uk/news/man-waged-hate-campaign-on-witness-at-wifes-inquest-6536135.html). Tyssen, (Chessy) Francesca: Art collector and estranged wife of Austrian politician Karl von Habsburg. The Habsburg family is one of the most powerful and wealthiest families in Europe. The Habsburgs are a Black Nobility family of very high prestige. U Urbiola, Jorge: Likely refers to the diplomat and author who serves as Deputy Chief of the Mission of the Kingdom of Spain in Ukraine. V Vahabzadeh, Iraj and Linda: Iraj was the eldest son of Dr. Mostafa Vahabzadeh, founder and owner of Kayhan Publishing Group in Iran. Lynda was his ex-wife. Iraj passed away in 2016. Van Hauen Sophie: No info found, although the address (62 Frith St) is that of Circa, a gay bar in London. Van, William Straubenzee: British Conservative Party politician and Member of Parliament who died in 1999. After his death, it was discovered that van Straubenzee was named in documents pertaining to British politician child abuse (https://www.independent.co.uk/news-14-0/westminster-child-abuse-allegations-mp-with-a-penchant-for-small-boys-gave-his-word-he-was-not-a-10408985.html). Van Straubenzee was also a longtime friend of Princess Diana (https://www.insider.com/princess-diana-documentary-revelations-2017-7#she-read-trashy-romance-novels-2) and the uncle of Thomas van Straubenzee (lifelong friend of Prince William) and Charlie van Straubenzee (Prince Harry’s best friend). Varsavsky, Martin: Argentine entrepreneur who has founded many companies, including Medicorp Sciences (biotechnology) and several telecommunications outfits. Velasquez, Patricia: Venezuelan model/actress who appeared in print ads for Victoria Secret. Photographed here (https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/news-photo/carole-radziwill-patricia-velasquez-and-ghislaine-maxwell-news-photo/608144434) with Ghislaine Maxwell and Carole Radziwill, who is also listed in Epstein’s contacts (check the ‘R’ thread) and is/was a good friend of Maxwell. Verdin, Julia: British film producer, casting director, and actress. Has been a friend of Ghislaine’s for decades, as evidenced by the photo of the pair, which was taken in 1986 (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8490447/Ghislaine-Maxwell-fall-sits-cell-photos-reveal-society-life.html). Verdin owned a house on the Sunset Strip in the early 1990s. She lived there with Birgit Cunningham and actress Elizabeth Hurley, who seems to be embroiled in Epstein and Maxwell’s world. The house was known as “party central” and was frequented by the likes of Robert De Niro and Jack Nicholson (https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1349953/Lord-Strathclyde-affair-blonde-Birgit-Cunningham-I-feel-used-says-single-mum.html). Verdin-Mulot, Annie & JP: Annie is a marketing director who has worked with Mulberry, Harrods, and Disneyland. She is the sister of Julia (above). Jean-Paul Mulot is a French journalist and former Deputy Editorial Director of Le Figaro, a daily newspaper in France. He is a permanent representative to the UK in the Hauts-de-France region. When confronted with his Epstein connections, Jean-Paul said that he only met him once 15 years ago and that his wife went to Oxford with Ghislaine Maxwell (https://fr.theepochtimes.com/un-ancien-directeur-du-figaro-cite-dans-le-carnet-noir-depstein-1001372.html). Close with former French president Nicolas Sarkozy, who served from 2007-2012. Veronis, Jane: Jewelry designer. Her father is the co-founder of Veronis Suhler Stevenson investment bank. Villani, Carmine S: President of Milestone Capital, an investment firm. Also President of Europower Renewable Energy Ltd. Villeneuve, Jacques: Formula 1 race car driver. Epstein has many F1 contacts. Vittadini, Emanuele A: No info found, but one of the emails listed traces back to arc-intl, which is a world-renowned glassware company. Vittorelli, Dott. Marco: Chairman of Openjobmetis, an Italian job recruitment service. Also serves on the Board of Directors of Pallacanestro Varese, an Italian basketball club. Vittoz, Martine: No info found. Vittoz, Patrick: Director of Exploit Information Technologies, which specializes in website promotion, search engine submission, and hosting. Patrick has been an architectural consultant at his family’s business for 41 years. Vittoz, Vonnic: No info found. Vivian Smith, Charles: Investment banker. Currently the 5th Baron Bicester. Von Habsburg, Francesca: Listed earlier in this thread under Tyssen, (Chessy) Francesca. Von Hase, Bettina: Independent consultant and writer on art and culture. Daughter of a former German ambassador to the UK. Bettina’s ex-husband of 30 years, John Varley, is a trustee of The Prince of Wales’s Charitable Foundation.
2020.08.09 01:19 bowser1192Planning to study abroad and finish my master's in a more gay-friendly country. Any advice?
TL;DR at the bottom. I would like you to share your opinions/stories related to studying abroad or moving to another country, seeking for gay-friendly environment. I made a post on another subreddit, but there weren't so many gay bros there and I have an update. So I'll make another post here. I did a quick research on taught master programs around the world. I found some good programs in U.S.(Seattle), Canada(British Columbia), and U.K.(Edinburgh, Sheffield and Wales). I wanna know about the situation of LGBT rights and gay scenes in those areas. I'm a senior in uni. I major in linguistics and am planning to get MSc in comp-sci or computational linguistics focusing on machine translation. In my country, changing one's specialization(i.e. from linguistics to machine translation) is not widely accepted. But yesterday, I got accepted from one of top leading institutions of machine translation in my country! I'm so hyped. A school year starts from April so I have enough time to apply for other schools. I think staying in my country has both pros/cons. I write them down below. ・pros of staying in my current country
There's no language barrier, easy to get into a new academic field(comp-sci and machine translation).
The organization I got offer from(as mentioned above) provides really good program. It's like a kind of combination of "taught" and "research" masters. In the first year of my master program, I take a lot of coursework to learn basics. In the next year, I gonna conduct my own research for my master thesis. The school has many competent professors. These institution has no undergrad program, and accepts wide range of students with various academic backgrounds.
If I work enough hard to publish some papers in magazines and journals, it would be easier for me to get offer from prestigious universities inside/outside of my country, when I apply for doctor programs.
・cons of staying in my current place
In my country, comp-sci schools/departments consist of 80~99% males and are very hetero-normative environment. (imagine as if you are the only gay athlete in NFL, I dunno whether this analogy is proper or not though) I don't mean I wanna make boyfriends in that school. I just want to focus on finishing my master's. But in such environment, I may feel pressured to hide my own sexuality.
I will get tuition exemption(at least half exemption), but my family can't give me any financial support. Probably I have to rely on educational loan for daily expenses.(And I already have educational loan debts for my undergrad study) My country does not offer so many scholarships to domestic students.
Also, studying abroad has its own advantages/disadvantages. (I'm planning to apply for taught masters.) ・pros of studying abroad
1-year intensive taught masters would be a good introduction to a new field(comp-sci and machine translation).
If I finish my mastedoctor degrees or have working experiences in those countries, I might be eligible to apply for a permanent visa in the future.
Generally speaking, working environment is much better than that of my country.(as long as I get decent jobs)
If I get scholarship for studying abroad, it would be cheaper than studying in my current country! I mean, I would be able to pay for almost all of tuition, living expenses and stuff like that with that scholarship. There are not so many scholarships for studying abroad, but they will give me very large amount of money as long as I get accepted.
I don't like the climate of my current place, especially in summer XD
In my country LGBT communities/activities are not very active. It might be easier for me to find LGBT friends/partners because of more active community and dating pool.
If I have a partner in the future(hopefully), it would be nice to live in a country that offers legal protection to same-sex couples.
・cons of studying abroad
My family is very poor and I can't expect any financial support from them. I need to get scholarship for studying abroad. The odds of getting scholarship and offers from universities overseas are very low. I believe it's worth trying and I have literally nothing to lose.
Moving to a gay friendly country does not mean I can get boyfriends immediately. I should not have this kind of fantasy. Rather, I would have more difficult times to find friends or partners because of my language incompetence or my ethnicity. I have to focus so hard on studying until I finish my degree. So anyways I won't have enough time to look for friendship and relationship in the mean time.
Language barrier is definitely a issue. Studying abroad does not necessarily mean my academic/career success.
I found that some schools in U.S. and Canada give offers around March~May. Schools in U.K. might give offers much earlier, as long as I apply early. A school year starts from April here, so if I don't get offer from U.K. universities earlier, I won't be able to apply for U.S. or Canada schools and wait for the result.
My current adviser said that I don't have to rush into making a decision, because if I finish my master's in my country and get some specialized knowledge/skills, I will be able to apply for doctor programs or jobs overseas later. But she doesn't know about my sexuality. I feel a little guilty. I should prioritize studying and finishing my master's, but at the same time I cannot ignore some of my aspects related to my sexuality when deciding on where to study. Can you give me any thoughts/comments/your stories? Also, how's the LGBT rights and gay scenes in U.S.(Seattle), Canada(British Columbia), and U.K.(Edinburgh, Sheffield and Wales)? I wanna get specific information of those areas. Thanks! TL;DR I want to study abroad in a gay-friendly country and finish my master's, hopefully getting a permanent visa in the future. But I know I don't necessarily have to study abroad to pursue my academic goals. Plus, I feel guilty because I take my sexuality things into consideration and deciding where to study, which I actually shouldn't do if I just wanna pursue my academic/career goals.
2020.08.06 07:11 bowser1192Studying abroad/moving to a gay friendly country, any advice?
TL;DR at the bottom. I would like you to share your opinions/stories about studying abroad or getting settled in a gay friendly countries. I'm a senior in uni in Japan. I major in cognitive linguistics but I am going to try some Computer Science things in relation to human language like machine translation. I'm quite interested in human language and human itself. So learning comp-sci technologies while working on human language would be a very good choice for me. I've already learned some stuffs(programming, math and etc) using online courses and books by myself. I did a quick research looking for good master programs and institutions both inside and outside of my country. In my country, changing one's specialization(e.g. from linguistics to comp-sci) is not widely accepted. Liberal arts and humanities are belittled so badly. But I found two top leading institutions of machine translation that willingly accept students of non-CS backgrounds in Japan. Actually, I already applied those two programs. I had an entrance exam and interview for one of those last Monday. I gonna get the result next Saturday. I'm 70% sure I get offer from the institution, because I did decent job in my exam and did quite well in the interview. A school year starts in April here. Enrollment process of the institutions I've already applied starts from February. So I still have some time to apply for programs overseas! I found the following programs: 1 in Canada(British Columbia), 1 in U.S.(Seattle), and 3 in U.K.(Edinburgh, Sheffield and Wales). Most of them are so called "taught" masters. I'm not familiar with this concept, but this system seems good fit for me, because I need to learn basics of comp-sci and machine learning through coursework. I talked about this plan with my current adviser, though I didn't tell her about my sexuality and desire to move to a gay friendly area. She pointed out I do not necessarily have to study abroad right now. She also mentioned that those two institutions in my country seem good fit for me, and that you can apply for doctor programs overseas once I finish my master degree here. Also, she had another good point that once I get enough knowledge/vocabulary and apply for doctor programs overseas, the language barrier would be much lower, which would lead to much more successful career as a researcheworker. I completely agree with her, but she doesn't know about my sexuality issues. So I write down pros and cons of both staying in my current country and studying abroad below. ・pros of staying in my current country 1. There's no language barrier, easy to get into a new academic field. I can move to other countries once I get decent amount of experience, knowledge. 2. The two organizations I've mentioned provide really good program and have very good . It's like a kind of combination of "taught" and "research" masters. In the first year of my master program, I take a lot of coursework to learn basics. In the next year, I am supposed to focus on conducting research for my master thesis. Professors are very competent. These institutions are very accepting to those who have different academic backgrounds, because they have no undergrad programs. 3. If I work enough hard to publish some papers in magazines and journals, it would be easier for me to get offer from prestigious universities inside/outside of my country, when I apply for doctor programs. I've accidentally come up with a brilliant research topic. I talked about it in my interview last Monday. I think they liked my idea. ・cons of staying in my current place 1. Those institutions are mainly focused on comp-sci. In my country, comp-sci faculties/schools consist of 99% males. And of course I'm into males yay XD But this environment is not very gay friendly. I don't know how to explain this. I can use an analogy of the football world in U.S.. There are many beefy, tough male athletes, but I think the football world is not very acceptable for LGBT athletes in general. The situation of comp-sci institutions might be similar to this one. ・pros of studying abroad 1. 1-year extensive programs of taught masters would be a good introduction to a new field. 2. If I finish my mastedoctor degrees or have working experiences in those countries, I might be eligible to apply for a permanent visa in the future. 3. Working environment is much better than that of my country.(as long as I get decent jobs) 4. I don't like the climate of my current place, especially in summer XD 5. In my country LGBT communities/activities are not very active. It might be easier for me to find LGBT friends/partners because of more active community and dating pool. 6. If I have a partner in the future(hopefully), it would be nice to live in a country that offers legal protection to same-sex couples. ・cons of studying abroad 1. My family is very poor and I can't expect any financial support from them. I need to get scholarship for studying abroad. The odds of getting scholarship and offers from universities overseas are very low. I believe it's worth trying though. 2. Moving to a gay friendly country does not mean I can get a boyfriend immediately. I should not have this kind of fantasy. I might have to focus so hard on studying to finish my degree. I won't have enough time to look for friendship and relationship in the mean time. 3. Language barrier is definitely a issue. Studying abroad does not necessarily mean my academic/career success. I have enough score of some language tests to apply for schools but I'm not enough confident. 4. One big problem here is that I'm not sure I can get offers before I enter one of institutions in my country in April. I found that some schools in U.S. and Canada give offers around March~May. Schools in U.K. might give offers much earlier, as long as I apply early. I would like to hear your opinions and similar stories. I also wanna know about LGBT rights in British Columbia, Seattle, Edinburgh, Sheffield and Wales. I'm sorry for this lengthy and unorganized post. Thanks for reading so far! TL;DR I'm thinking of applying master programs around the world. Studying abroad have both pros and cons as stated above. Do you have any opinion or story related to studying abroad or moving to a gay friendly country? I also wanna know about the situation of LGBT scenes in British Columbia, Seattle, Edinburgh, Sheffield and Wales specifically.
Hey what’s up everybody, and greetings from The Shire, My name is MMH, founder of https://TheOrganicMarketer.com and welcome to The OTT Experiment! So the big question here that the OTT experiment will be taking on is simply this — why pay for traffic that’s already there? So how do entrepreneurs like us market in a way that lets us get our products and our services and the things that we believe in out of the world without having to run paid ads? In this experiment we will be building social media accounts from the ground up and providing daily actionable steps so you can follow along and see how this thing grows! So the OTT experiment — OTT being an initialism for ‘Own That Traffic’ is structured around this one simple question “why pay for traffic that’s already there?” Currently we have a facebook group — the organic marketer (official) with — as of today 8 members a podcast account on Libsyn and this brand new account on Medium.com, but that’s all, nothing else. We are going to be launching brand new accounts across all social platforms and documenting as we go. The experiment is designed for you to follow along, with actionable steps that you too can take each day for the next 365 days and we’ll see how this grows! Oh my days, Isn’t this exciting? PLUS, we’ll be throwing in some expert interviews along the way to find out what’s working right now! So, If it’s ok with you, I’d like to take this episode to introduce myself and to tell you how The Organic Marketer came to be and from tomorrow it’ll be all business, I promise! So here goes — I’m 46 years old, a child of the seventies, I am very happily single (or self partnered I think the term is nowadays thank you Emma Watson) and I live on The Shire in Rural South West England and I love it. I am so incredibly lucky to live here — my house is on a single track road that leads to the crop farmers farmhouse and I have views of open fields to the front and back and yes — a tractor passes by my house most days and again — I love it! It’s such a beautiful place to live and my view is just too good to be working in an office. So I’ve worked in office jobs for many years previously, when I had my 3 young boys to raise. You’ve gotta do what you’ve gotta do, right? So the kids were in breakfast club by 8am before school every day — because I had to fight my way through traffic to get to the office by the skin of my teeth for an 8.30am start. It’s only like a 5–6 mile journey, but it was a 23 min drive so that’s like that torturous inch by inch style of driving, that crappy kind of commute where you just want to get there — thank the lord for radio and podcasts is all i say! So then i’d work all day, £’s for hours and doing an outstanding job for my employers may I add — have you ever done that — or are doing that now? Giving more to your job than your job is giving you? Yeah well I hear you, loud and clear. So, after breakfast club the wonderful staff walked my 3 boys over to the main school for them to start their school day. After school, at 3.30pm, because my shift didn’t finish until 5.30, the boys were walked back over to the after school club until 6pm. I had 30 mins to run from the office to the car park, fight my way through the same traffic all the way back from work just to get to the doors at 6pm closing. I was always the last parent to pick up my kids. But don’t feel too bad for them, they loved being with their friends before and after school, playing pool, learning to sew, going on treasure hunts in the grounds — they had an awesome time and learned some great life skills at the same time. Now, please don’t judge me for that, it wasn’t what I wanted, it’s not how I planned to raise my children, but I was married very young, just 18, and I became a single parent at 28. The boys were 9, 7 and 6 — still just babies — and too young to be going through that kind of mess — but I was in a disappointing marriage and like i said, you’ve gotta do what you’ve gotta do, right? So here I was with 3 (growing really fast may I add) young men — who also btw are always hungry — they never stop eating — and they needed a constant supply of uniforms, school shoes, bags, vests, pants and socks — trip money, football kits, new trainers, lunch money, birthday and christmas gifts and parties and besides that — i’m not sure if you know this but spoiler alert — three boys need constant entertaining — oh my gosh that’s exhausting, keeping them occupied — take your eye off the ball for a second and you’ve got a broken door or window — or the dog is halfway down the road — or worse, one of them is bleeding because they’ve been swinging off the curtains and the pole has come out of the wall — that’s all happened in my house and a whole lot more, but that’s the joy, right — anyway this list just goes on — my mortgage payments, the bills, more and more food, and you won’t believe the amount of washing detergent you need for the 3 sets of everything these little people need every day — and we’ve always lived next to fields and streams — so here’s some quick maths that I learnt very early on — fields + streams + 3 boys & 1 dog = don’t dress them in white when they go out to play. But all that stuff just made me stronger and that was who I became — a super strong hardcore badass unstoppable female role model for my 3 young men — I worked hard, I fixed their bikes, I did my own diy, I took them abroad, we had regular day trips across the South West & Wales like to Weston Pier for fish and chips and an ice-cream by the mud. We did theme parks and London and music festivals and the balloon fiesta in the summer — and I mastered every Birthday and Christmas list, apart from the dinosaur request that Santa got one year — however, Santa badass did manage to get one of those toy archaeological sets with little tools to dig and brush your dinosaur eggs out, bravo — christmas meltdown averted! Was I trying to overcompensate for being both mum and dad? Heck yes, that’s what single parents do. They suck it up and get it done. So to all you single parents out there, listening to this and wanting more for your kids — then you absolutely rock! But, I’ve done my time and my boys are now men :-) and having the freedom to work from home, without the constraints of school runs, meetings, clubs, sports practice, playdates and all that good stuff, I decided that I had to give the online money-making thing a go. So in 2016 when my youngest turned 20, I promised myself that I would find a way to close the door forever on working £’s for hours jobs and that I was going to become an internet millionaire and be able to buy my own farmhouse on the Shire — well you’ve got to have goals! Now, with that decision made, I began my research with the same question that everyone wanting to make money online types into google ’how to make money online?’ obviously. And I came across Russell Brunson and Clickfunnels (no idea what that was) — and Jon Mac and Commerce hq — which is all geared around drop-shipping and print on demand super fancy ecomm stores — well this sounds like a good way to start I thought. So I went with Commercehq — The software is amazing and rivals shopify for functionality all day long — but I’ve never been a user of facebook & I very quickly lost a ton of money in fb ads and that was enough for me to realise this was not for me — and also it wasn’t my product (which is what I really wanted to have) and my heart was never really in it. So I did some research for training on how to start a product line and I found Greta Van Riel and the start and scale program. This program is so awesome and I got stuck right in. But that’s me — once I’ve made a decision that’s it — full steam ahead! & so I decided I was going to start a vegan handbag outlet — veganism was trending hard and I’m not a meat eater, so I invested in some premium vegan material, some super fancy eco-lining material with my pretty logo, handbag and leatherwork tools, patterns, and even I made my own tech packs — but wow — handbags are expensive to produce and ship! I didn’t have the capital for all that but I did have a few meters of pinatex — which, btw, is a super clever invention made from pineapple harvest waste — it really is incredible stuff & I’m always blown away by eco-innovations like this! So what I did was I turned my leftover pinatex into a kickstarter 100 project in January 2020 — which did ok, 20 something % funded, I was quite surprised, but really it was an afterthought business and again — my heart wasn’t in it, so I was pretty relieved that it didn’t take off. So I went back to the start and scale program — which by now was now upgraded to version 2.0 and I began working on my new project — spf moisturisers and lip balms. Now I’m a red head so spf products are kind of made for my skin type right? But I still had no idea how I was going to sell this — and I’m my ideal customer! — anyways, I was already deep into quotes and labels and logos and I was about to order my first product samples when lockdown came — which I believe saved me falling down another very deep and expensive rabbit hole. So, during lockdown and believing I was running out of possibilities — I was back to square one — and to be honest I was worried there wasn’t anything left to try — I’d done ecomm and POD and start and scale and my own products, I’d even tried kickstarter… So I began the search again, but this time I searched in youtube and Russell Brunsons ad for his Secrets Masterclass popped up in front of the video I was about to watch and I signed up immediately. I did the masterclass on Aprli 16th 2020 and through that training, I discovered the one thing that was missing from EACH & EVERY one of my previous projects — marketing! Hallelujah — there’s hope for me yet! In fact I didn’t know what marketing really was until April 16th of this year and Russell Brunsons’ Masterclass. I thought marketing was the department that sends brochures out to clients. I knew about advertising because I’d been burned with paid fb ads — but I had no idea what marketing actually really was, or meant even… Anyways, I’m about to blow your mind and drop some Steven Larsen Quotes on you here, so listen up. I absolutely love this. So Steven Larsen’s definition of marketing is this ‘marketing is the act of changing beliefs with the intent of a sale’ I’ll repeat that for you - Wow — mind blown! And his definition of ‘sales is presenting an offer and overcoming objections’ — repeat again — blew my mind — but he doesn’t stop there, no. His definition of ‘closing is simply logical reasons to act now’ — Genius! Absolute genius. Now this stuff and this way of thinking gets me really excited — finally this is where my heart is — I was born for this kind of stuff! Not because I have all the skills, but because I love to learn new things all the time and marketing is this ever evolving situation — which to me is everything I could ask for in a career. It’s as they say — everyday’s a school day! So at the end of the Secrets Masterclass, Russell introduces the ofa 30 day challenge & I’m on it. Take my money, sign me up now — let’s get this party started! I registered for the very next ofa challenge and as it turned out, my start date was May 4th 2020 (the best day of the year for all my star wars fans out there), but to my absolute horror, I totally flunked it — I was utterly shocked! But this is where my heart is, and I’m all in and so I immersed myself in all things marketing, Russell Brunson and Clickfunnels and I built myself a framework out of these mistakes, to make sure that when I was ready to retake the challenge, I would be successful. Then I put all that goodness into a free workshop which you can find at ofahackers.com, broken down into 8 simple hacks — and I registered to take the challenge again! So, I’m redoing the 30 day challenge, following the ofahackers framework — and today is week 2, day 3 And although I am at the very beginning of my marketing and social media journey, I am not new to the world of work and business. I was incredibly lucky to win a scholarship for my private school education — which ain’t no hayride let me tell you! I’ve worked in education, finance, construction, customer service, training, sales and I’ve been self employed now for a long time. I’ve paid for plenty of professional training in the past so as a single parent I could earn enough money to run my family, and run my family well — such as a Btec in business and finance, my financial planning certificates, NEBOSH health & safety in construction and I’ve been to university but none of that expensive, time consuming training that leads to £’s for hours jobs, none of that compares to the $100 I spent on The OFA 30 Day Challenge — yes you heard me — $100 dollars — 30 days — and believe me, everyone really is just one funnel away :-) and since I discovered Russell Brunson I have become obsessed with organic traffic — partly because I have no budget, yes, but mostly because I’ve always thought traffic is something I had to find, but it’s as Russell says — “the traffic is already there — just hang out where your audience is hanging out”. So, I’ve spent the past 3 months absorbing every drop of goodness that I could from the professionals and the masters — I have studied and funnel hacked — and as a result of that, I’ve created some really great FREE training — which i’m really proud of — for the social media beginner — or for ANYONE who wants to OWN THAT TRAFFIC! I’ll be dropping that content into a free members area some time in the next week — so that’s something I’m very excited about! and that’s the framework that I’ll be using for this experiment — you’ll be able to find all this good stuff at theorganicmarketer.com very soon and I will obviously be updating and expanding the training area as things evolve — but the one real question this experiment will be addressing — and hopefully answering — is — “why pay for traffic that’s already there?” So that’s why I am launching this podcast today — as part of publishing week for the ofa 30 day challenge #dowhatrussellsays so we will see how this grows from here! OK, phew! now that the pleasantries are over with, we can get down to business and I do not want to start this whole thing off with the obvious — facebook, but apart from a podcast account on Libsyn, that’s the only other account we have as of today. So, in tomorrow’s episode we will begin with the exciting stuff — setting up our social media accounts! Just remember, even though this is an experiment and sounds scientific, I promise absolutely no technobabble, just straight up easy to follow actionable content! I hope you’ve enjoyed this introduction and I would love for you to join the experiment! Please come and find us on facebook u/theottmethod or search for our facebook group the organic marketer (official) and if you want to know more about the ofa challenge just go to https://ofahackers.com. Thanks for reading!
2020.07.17 00:57 deadowlRe: Kids Rarely Transmit Covid-19, Say UVM Docs in Top Journal
This was posted a couple of days ago: https://www.reddit.com/vermont/comments/hra1vm/kids_rarely_transmit_covid19_say_uvm_docs_in_top/ The link to the actual article published is this: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2020/07/08/peds.2020-004879 It's kind of a pain to read through 17 sources, but I went ahead and did it because I have some friends that are pretty worried about school reopenings. Note that I'm by no means a medical expert or anything, just someone who seeks to better understand what the heck they've read. Could be wrong on some things. Begin a long tl;dr from my review of this Data stating that children are infected far less frequently than adults is very questionable on account of limited testing availability and the studies cited support this. Typically milder symptoms are supported. There were upticks of Kawasaki disease-like conditions among children in reported in some places that coincided with the outbreak of Covid, and it appears most of these children tested negative for Covid-19 with the swab test but positive with the antibody tests. Children also seem to shed the virus for longer than adults. Generally children in a household seem to start having symptoms after an adult starts having symptoms and most of the studies assume adult transmission to children in these cases on account of chronology. Plausible other explanations: children aren't getting it first because they're home from school, or children may have a longer incubation period than adults. Also, it seems adults can get it from children but there's not a lot of data on it. There seems to be some possible bias about child-to-child and child-to-adult transmission on account of they cited one article solely for a case of one child potentially exposing 80+ other adults/children (low sample size), and also described another study as showing only one possible transmission from child to adult (child was sick before the adults got sick) when exposure to an adult with Covid-19 was part of the selection criteria for the population of 10 pediatric patients studied. The paper on schools New South Wales, Australia (citation 10) seems to be the only one that would hold any weight, but then you hear about all of these cases in Texas day cares and so it's still questionable until Texas stops being dumb about sharing statistical information. One thing from Texas I've read though is that the children definitely test positive less frequently than the day care workers--don't know whether their contact tracing teams are accounting for an unknown incubation period for children though. There also seems to be bias on the effect of school closures, and in considering it as mutually exclusive from broader measures taken. It seems they put the argument forward that Covid-19 doesn't spread in schools like we know the flu does. And then the last two citations are mostly just opinion pieces, citation 16's source leaning on citation 17 which has its own ten sources and providing at least one contradictory argument stating that by Italy closing schools with people still working, the grandparents potentially got sick from watching their grandkids (I say potentially, the paper doesn't). End a long tl;dr One important thing to note, is that all of this I'm writing is biased by the sources these researchers cited, and not one of them directly studied the negative effects that school closures have on children, and not in comparison to the overall effects of Covid-19. I have been told probably the most important thing you can do, however, is to make sure your kids are reading if you have any, and that it doesn't necessarily have to be books or novels, just words from some place.
From the UVM Today article:
Rising cases among adults and children in Texas childcare facilities, which have seen 894 Covid-19 cases among staff members and 441 among children in 883 child care facilities across the state, have the potential to be misinterpreted, Dr. Raszka said. He has not studied the details of the outbreak.
Statement from the journal article this and the next two citations serves as a reference for:
One surprising aspect of this pandemic is that children appear to be infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, far less frequently than adults and, when infected, typically have mild symptoms.
The actual article uses U.S. data to April 2. The body of data for this period of time is not remotely complete and cannot be used for any analysis based on age unless it's related to hospitalization in some contexts. Testing seemed to be more used as a triage tool for high risk populations than a statistical tool. Nobody in the U.S. had remotely enough tests to cover the population at that point and were rationed to high risk people--high risk people where age is a known factor. In short this data is highly unreliable on account of children weren't being tested, or were being tested minimally due to being considered low risk if acquiring the disease. I believe what I saw on the Vermont COVID dashboard was a stark increase in the number of young people identified once enough tests were available to implement voluntary testing on people who were asymptomatic and perform contact tracing. Statement of limitations from the discussion section of the article cited:
The findings in this report are subject to at least four limitations. First, because of the high workload associated with COVID-19 response activities on local, state, and territorial public health personnel, a majority of pediatric cases were missing data on disease symptoms, severity, or underlying conditions. Data for many variables are unlikely to be missing at random, and as such, these results must be interpreted with caution. Because of the high percentage of missing data, statistical comparisons could not be conducted. Second, because many cases occurred only days before publication of this report, the outcome for many patients is unknown, and this analysis might underestimate severity of disease or symptoms that manifested later in the course of illness. Third, COVID-19 testing practices differ across jurisdictions and might also differ across age groups. In many areas, prioritization of testing for severely ill patients likely occurs, which would result in overestimation of the percentage of patients with COVID-19 infection who are hospitalized (including those treated in an ICU) among all age groups. Finally, this analysis compares clinical characteristics of pediatric cases (persons aged <18 years) with those of cases among adults aged 18–64 years. Severe COVID-19 disease appears to be more common among adults at the high end of this age range (6), and therefore cases in young adults might be more similar to those among children than suggested by the current analysis.
Children of all ages were sensitive to COVID-19, and there was no significant sex difference. Clinical manifestations of children’s COVID-19 cases were less severe than those of adult patients. However, young children, particularly infants, were vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection. The distribution of children’s COVID-19 cases varied with time and space, and most of the cases were concentrated in Wuhan and surrounding areas. Furthermore, the results of this study provide strong evidence for human-to-human transmission because children were unlikely to visit the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, where the early adult patients were reported to have obtained 2019-nCoV.
Stated limitations of this study:
This study also has a number of limitations. First, we were unable to assess clinical characteristics of children’s COVID-19 because these data were unavailable at the time of analysis. As an important and urgent issue, clinical features of children’s COVID-19 need to be analyzed in further research. It appeared to have more severe and critical cases in the suspected than in the confirmed group (Table 1), which suggests that some suspected cases might be caused by other respiratory infections (eg, RSV). Second, we did not have information on children’s exposure history, and thus, the incubation period was not examined in this study. Finally, because the epidemic of COVID-19 is ongoing and rapidly evolving, many children who are affected still remain hospitalized. To gain a better understanding of children’s COVID-19, more detailed patient information, particularly clinical outcomes (eg, discharge, transfer to ICU, or death), should be collected in future studies.
The statement in the article that references this citation and citation 5:
although emerging reports of a novel Kawasaki disease–like multisystem inflammatory syndrome necessitate continued surveillance in pediatric patients.
It appears that in epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic, some children are showing signs of a Kawasaki-disease-like illness. This one's from Britain. Some different statements in this article would make me question whether the false negative rate of children is higher than adults.
During a period of 10 days in mid-April, 2020, we noted an unprecedented cluster of eight children with hyperinflammatory shock, showing features similar to atypical Kawasaki disease, Kawasaki disease shock syndrome, or toxic shock syndrome (typical number is one or two children per week). This case cluster formed the basis of a national alert.
Four children had known family exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
All children tested negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on broncho-alveolar lavage or nasopharyngeal aspirates. Despite being critically unwell, with laboratory evidence of infection or inflammation3 including elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, ferritin, triglycerides, and D-dimers, no pathological organism was identified in seven of the children. Adenovirus and enterovirus were isolated in one child.
Citation referenced in the same statement as citation 4. Looks like only two of ten children with Kawasaki-like illness tested positive with a nasal swab in Italy, though only two of ten tested negative for both IgG and IgM antibodies. Five of ten had contact with a suspected or confirmed case.
We report a high number of Kawasaki-like disease cases in the Bergamo province following the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, with a monthly incidence that is at least 30 times greater than the monthly incidence of the previous 5 years, and has a clear starting point after the first case of COVID-19 was diagnosed in our area.
This study has the limitations of a relatively small case series, requiring confirmation in larger groups. Genetic studies investigating the susceptibility of patients developing this disease to the triggering effect of SARS-CoV-2 should be done. Nonetheless, we reported a strong association between an outbreak of Kawasaki-like disease and the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the Bergamo province of Italy. Patients diagnosed with Kawasaki-like disease after the viral spreading revealed a severe course, including KDSS and MAS, and required adjunctive steroid treatment. A similar outbreak of Kawasaki-like disease is expected in countries affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
This one gets a whole paragraph referencing it, though I'm going to use a spoiler tag to simplify a big word. HHC means household contact:
In this issue of Pediatrics, Posfay-Barbe et al report on the dynamics of COVID-19 within families of children with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction–confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in Geneva, Switzerland. From March 10 to April 10, 2020, all children <16 years of age diagnosed at Geneva University Hospital (N = 40) underwent contact tracing to identify infected household contacts (HHCs). Of 39 evaluable households, in only 3 (8%) was a child the suspected index case, with symptom onset preceding illness in adult HHCs. In all other households, the child developed symptoms after or concurrent with adult HHCs, suggesting that the child was not the source of infection and that children most frequently acquire COVID-19 from adults, rather than transmitting it to them.
First of all, this citation appears to be a non-final pre-publication, and I've read enough disclaimers stating preprints should not be used to form public policy, though on the other hand this is stating it's peer reviewed so it's somewhat of a middle ground. Disclaimer provided:
This paper may contain information that has errors in facts, figures, and statements, and will be corrected in the final published version. The journal is providing an early version of this article to expedite access to this information. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the editors, and authors are not responsible for inaccurate information and data described in this version.
It states basically that most children in the sample of families in Geneva had COVID-19 symptoms onset after adults in the household had symptoms onset, and that they can't determine whether there was child-to-adult transmission.
Of 68 children with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Qingdao Women’s and Children’s Hospital from January 20 to February 27, 2020, and with complete epidemiological data, 65 (95.59%) patients were HHCs of previously infected adults.
From that paper, it says there's been no evidence of child-to-adult or child-to-child transmission:
There has been no evidence revealing the virus was transmitted from children to others.
Looks like they screened late in the outbreak in China, i.e. lockdown measures in place, which can be a confounding factor, and if that's anything like here children aren't typically going out without their parents or being exposed to other people.
We only screened common respiratory pathogens for children who were admitted to hospitals during the later stage of the outbreak.
Like the previous citation, used time of symptom onset to make the determination that adults necessarily had it first. Only three cases out of 68 seemed to have a child whose symptoms appeared before an adult.
Except for 3 sporadic cases, 65 (65 of 68; 95.6%) case patients were household contacts of adults whose symptoms developed earlier and the last confirmed case within the family
Statement given in the paper referencing this citation:
Of 10 children hospitalized outside Wuhan, China, in only 1 was there possible child to adult transmission, based on symptom chronology.
Can someone tell me where they can find where in the cited article this is stated as fact? It doesn't seem like this study cited was trying to gauge symptom chronology, stated that part of its selection criteria was exposure to an infected adult, and additionally offered this:
For the 3-month-old infant (patient 7 in Table 1), her parents developed symptomatic COVID 7 days after they looked after the sick baby without protection measures.
Another interesting statement in the article cited:
Virus shedding in respiratory specimens is longer in children with mild COVID, which will impose a challenge for infection control.
Statement given in the paper referencing this citation:
In an intriguing study from France, a 9-year-old boy with respiratory symptoms associated with picornavirus, influenza A, and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection was found to have exposed over 80 classmates at 3 schools; no secondary contacts became infected, despite numerous influenza infections within the schools, suggesting an environment conducive to respiratory virus transmission.
A sample size of one isn't really anything worth attention.
Statement given in the paper referencing this citation:
In New South Wales, Australia, 9 students and 9 staff infected with SARS-CoV-2 across 15 schools had close contact with a total of 735 students and 128 staff. Only 2 secondary infections were identified, none in adult staff; 1 student in primary school was potentially infected by a staff member, and 1 student in high school was potentially infected via exposure to 2 infected schoolmates.
This one's a bit more interesting.
Nose/throat swabs were taken from one third (n=53) of contacts. Only one secondary case (nose/throat swab positive) was identified in the 168 close contacts. In the same primary school that had this secondary case, 21 close contacts underwent blood testing. The same student whose nose/throat swab tested positive also had antibodies detected through serology testing, consistent with their known recent infection.a
Though yea, some considerations noted:
It is notable that on 23 March 2020 the NSW Premier advised that although schools remained open, parents were encouraged to keep their children at home for online learning. After this date face-to-face attendance in schools decreased significantly and this may have impacted the results of this investigation. Furthermore, school holidays commenced in NSW on Friday 10 April for two weeks.
This concerns the spread of influenza in schools and closure of schools as public health policy for comparison. I'm pretty sure it says spread of influenza is less among school-aged children during holidays/vacations.
Statement given in the paper referencing this citation:
Additional support comes from mathematical models, which find that school closures alone may be insufficient to halt epidemic spread
From the abstract of the cited article:
Based on these data, we built a transmission model to study the impact of social distancing and school closure on transmission. We find that social distancing alone, as implemented in China during the outbreak, is sufficient to control COVID-19. Although proactive school closures cannot interrupt transmission on their own, they can reduce peak incidence by 40 to 60% and delay the epidemic.
The statement given in the paper referencing this citation seems to add a little more from citation 13 if I'm interpreting it correctly.
Additional support comes from mathematical models, which find that school closures alone may be insufficient to halt epidemic spread and have modest overall impacts compared with broader, community-wide physical distancing measures.
I'm having a hard time interpreting this. Aren't broader measures like social distancing and limiting contacts kind of overlapping with school closures?
In 47 COVID-19–infected German children, nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral loads were similar to those in other age groups, raising concern that children could be as infectious as adults.
And the abstract of that paper--this one's pretty self-explanatory.
Data on viral load, as estimated by real-time RT-PCR threshold cycle values from 3,712 COVID-19 patients were analysed to examine the relationship between patient age and SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Analysis of variance of viral loads in patients of different age categories found no significant difference between any pair of age categories including children. In particular, these data indicate that viral loads in the very young do not differ significantly from those of adults. Based on these results, we have to caution against an unlimited re-opening of schools and kindergartens in the present situation. Children may be as infectious as adults.
Statement in the paper referencing this citation and citation 17:
[...] serious consideration should be paid toward strategies that allow schools to remain open, even during periods of COVID-19 spread. In doing so, we could minimize the potentially profound adverse social, developmental, and health costs that our children will continue to suffer until an effective treatment or vaccine can be developed and distributed or, failing that, until we reach herd immunity.
In summary, the citation is an editorial stating that the prospect of reopening schools during the pandemic has not received nearly enough attention, and that there are significant risks in closing schools, especially for those of lower socioeconomic status.
Another point-of-view article, which has its own 10 citations. Found this comment on school closure interesting:
If parents must work and grandparents must become the primary caretakers of children, the risk significantly increases that these persons, who are per se at the greatest risk of serious illness, may become infected, and this is what happened in Italy in the first 2 weeks when school closure was decided but other work activities were not stopped.
Another interesting excerpt stated earlier in the article:
In China, it was found that school closure for 2 months was not significantly effective for disease prevention mainly because of the very low incidence of symptomatic disease among school-aged children. Moreover, in Taiwan, it was evidenced that the risk of transmission of infection among children in a classroom was very low, with an R0 less than 1, clearly highlighting that school closure could be only marginally effective.
2020.07.15 13:00 Alarmed-Highlight-57Email To Me From Porter Stansberry,Agora Inc Just Before Rey Rivera's Death
I think this link from offshorealert.com which was actually David Marchant's offhorebusiness.com when I posted it there,has all the email correspondence with Stansberry from 2005,one year before the death of Rey Rivera.Much has been lost or hidden since that time and the closing of all the indymedia.org websites I used to use.Besides the link here is the email in which he invites me to the office of Agora in 2005. The reason Stansberry refers to me as William Knowles is because that was one of many names and aliases I had to use to get a new account and email at raginbull.com that deleted one account after the other for my posting on Endovac and other message boards about penny stock fraud.British-Israeli Michael Zwebner running the 'UCSY' or Air Water Corp scam sued CNN and Wolf Blitzer for $100 million in a Florida court in 2005 because of my creation of wolfblitzzer0 as one of my many aliases.Unfortunately CNN and Blitzer had an interest in covering up Zwebner's high level Israeli govnment connections such as Ehud Olmert and Moshe Katzav, and so they never even mentioned the case on CNN even after the litigation had ended.In my opinion the ex SEC attrorney Brent Baker as well as Karen Martinez who claimed Rivera may have been murdered by defrauded investors let Stansberry and Davidson walk.For that they both indirectly are responsible for Rey Rivera's death.It would not be surprising at all to me if some Masonic Lodge member or members were behind those worthless penny stocks that Stansberry paid Rivera to promote.Brent Baker later was employed or bribed for his cover up by getting a job from Overstock.com's Patrick Byrne.Strangely I ran across a Salt Lake City news article about his defending a Stanford hedge fund perpetrator in which he says he was in NY on 9/11 and had an appointment that morning at the WTC just before all heil broke loose. https://www.offshorealert.com/forums.aspx?g=posts&t=38237 Posted: 11/4/2005 12:04:28 AM By: Porter Stansberry responds ----- Original Message ----- From: "Porter Stansberry" To: "william knowles" Subject: Re: Jim Davidson Date: Thu, 3 Nov 2005 17:01:20 -0500 Tony (er...William Knowles...), Using Google to research people will lead you to make a lot of strange connections. One time I shared the first class cabin of an airplane with John Waters, the famous film maker. He lives in Baltimore too. But it's not a conspiracy. In fact, I hate his movies and I think he's a total nut job. You're drawing the same kind of bizarre conclusions between me and Jim Davidson. I've never had a substantive conversation with Jim Davidson. I've been in the same room with him less than half a dozen times. He was a childhood friend of Bill Bonner. They started Agora together. Bill was the copywriter. Davidson was the editor. Davidson quickly sold out to Bill, who built the business over a 30 year period. Later Davidson left the company, at least in part because his stock picks tended to be very risky. Agora is now the parent company of my business. That's the only connection -- Jim used to work with the people I work with today. Jim, by the way, is in his mid-50s. I'm in my early 30s. We are in two completely separate peer groups. We're not friends. We're not associates. And we never have been. I started my publishing company, Stansberry & Associates Investment Research in 1999. Our editorial rule -- from the first day -- was that we would not buy any stock we wrote about until after we gave our readers a fair chance to buy it. However in 2003, to make the rules even more clear, we simply forbade any of our writers from owning ANYTHING they write about. No subscriber or government agency has ever, during my entire career, brought a charge against me of attempting to "front run" or pump and dump stock. We make it very clear to all subscribers THAT WE DO NOT INVEST IN THE THINGS WE WRITE ABOUT. The SEC did bring suit against me in 2002 for publishing what it alleges was a fraudulent report on USEC (NYSE: USU). There was never any allegation that I owned shares of that company or that I recommended the stock in order to move its share price in any way. It is a case of "he said, she said," nothing more. My source at the company denies telling me the things I wrote about. In my report, by the way, I predicted USEC's share price would double because of a new pricing agreement with a Russian supplier. The agreement happened three weeks after I predicted it would and the stock nearly tripled by the time our court case began. Those are facts, you can look them up. I recommended USEC in May of 2002, at $6.50. Davidson was mentioned in one SEC filing as an example of the kind of work I do. The judge rebuked the SEC for mentioning Davidson in our case, as he was not a party to it. You can contact Judge Garbis about all of this to verify it. Brent Baker was the SEC lawyer who investigated me. During our case he left the SEC and gave us information about the SEC's motives in our case in the hope that we would hire him. We filed a brief about his behaviour -- which was completely bizarre and totally unethical. We didn't hire him. I don't know why anyone would hire that guy...he's real creep. Regarding Freedom Fest: I was invited to speak by Mark Skousen, the conference organizer. I've known Mark for 10 years. He's a very well respected economist/professor (teaches at Columbia) and has written probably a dozen history/economic books. I didn't realize it was going to be a neo-con love fest or I wouldn't have shown up. I don't think Davidson was there, by the way. I didn't see him at any rate. I did see George Gilder. And I did see Bill Bonner. I gave a presentation on some research I'd been doing on the lack of private savings in the baby boomer generation and the larger problem of bankrupt pension plans. Thus the title "Generation Debt." Here's a copy, more or less, of the speech I gave. This version is from an essay I wrote early during my research of the problem: http://wwwdailyreckoning.com/Issues/2002/112602.html Regarding my group's recommendation of Overstock.com, the article was written by Graham Summers. He is the editor of our "Inside Strategist" newsletter. The recommendation was a follow-up to one that Graham wrote more than a year ago on the same company -- long before any of this "naked shorting" nonsense errupted. Graham recommends stocks when they have a lot of inside buying. Overstock.com qualified because the CEO was buying big chunks ($10-$12 million) of stock. No other reason. Graham, by the way, has never met Jim Davidson and has never spoken with him. I don't know anything about Jim's business dealings...in England or Dubai...or anywhere else. I run a very honest business with nearly 40 hardworking employees and thousands of satisfied customers in over 120 countries. We give refunds to any subscriber who is not happy with our work. We do not cheat anyone nor would we endorse or condone any kind of fraudulent stock market activity. I don't know anything about "naked shorting" the National Taxpayer's Union, or almost anything else you've written about. I would invite you, again, to meet with me and my staff at our offices (1217 St. Paul Street) in Baltimore at any reasonable time. I would be happy to give you more third party references who can verify the facts I've shared with you here. And I would ask you to please correct, pull down or amend any and all statements you've made about me, my business, my publications or my staff that allege or imply any wrongdoing or business dealings with Jim Davidson. Your postings -- even though they're totally baseless -- could have a material impact on my reputation and thus the economic well being of my business. Thank you. Porter Stansberry .............. Below is email from Lila Rajiva who sent it to me in 2005 the same year Porter Stansberry contacted me.Although the Chicago Mercantile and porn trafficker Jimbo Wales gave her a Wikipedia vanity biography and she used to blog incesently and published a book on U.S. military torture and rape of Iraqi at Abu Graibe and then did a book,'Mobs,Markets and Messiahs.' with Bill Bonner they had some kind of falling out and she did some blog posts attacking him.She also attacked me of couirse after first contacting me with emails below pretending she was searching for the truth about Agoa Inc.,etc.. In recent years she seems to have vanished although she did write a good article about Agora and a penny stock scam called Goldcor that claimed to get gold from a black sand beach in Costa Rica.It also had a mysterious death or murder,(also labeled a suicide), of an executive of the company in late 1980s or early 1990s.A copy of her article must still be around because I reposted it around the web long before her websites disappeared.Wonder what happened to her vanity Wikipedia bio ? In the early 2000s James Dale Davidson posted widely on the internet that he was the founder of Agora as well as NTU.The National Taxpayers Union or NTU is located in Alexandria,Virginia to be close to the SEC headquarters I guess.Davidson kept himself president of the NTU for many years and took over again after the unexplained death of a Mr.BertHoud some years ago.The NTU webite simply said they found him 'in peace' at his house.Davidson's pal Steve Forbes was also NTU president years ago. Subject: Re Agora and Davidson Date: Fri, 21 Oct 2005 00:25:56 Dear Mr. Ryall, I read with interest your articles on the net regarding Agora Publishing and the stock ventures of the founder, James Dale Davidson. However, I was led to believe that Bill Bonner well-known copywriter and author is the founder. Can you please clarify this as I have had some dealings with the latter gentleman and am concerned about such connections. Could it be that you are mistaken in your accusations? Sincerely Lila Rajiva Dear Mr. Ryals: Thank you for all this information. I will certainly keep it in mind. I plan to work for Mr. Bonner only in a limited way and with nothing to do with his stock activities or selling. I am a writer and and planning on working on a book with him that has nothing to do with finances. I appreciate this information and do thank you for it. But I am not in a position to ascertain the truth of it and don’t have the time as well. I hope that you will be able to recoup your losses. I sincerely feel for you about that as I suffered similar losses through unscrupulous individuals. Kind regards Lila Rajiva Lila Rajiva& [lrajiva (at) hotmail.com](mailto:lrajiva*hotmail.com) To: [endoscam (at) lycos.com](mailto:endoscam*lycos.com) Subject: Re: Re Agora and Davidson Date: Thu, 27 Oct 2005 02:19:44 Dear Mr. Ryals, I did speak to Mr. Bonner about Porter Stansberry. He was very forthcoming and adhered to the position that he was not guilty of any legal wrong doing, such as pump and dump. He seemed a very open and sincere individual so I am a bit puzzled.It’s quite possible that some of his associates are involved things he is not aware of. Or that they were only inexperienced or needlessly zealous, which was unfortunate, but may not be illegal. Do let me know if you come across anything else. Lila Rajiva
2020.07.05 15:35 Kujo17239 Experts With 1 Big Claim: The Coronavirus Is Airborne - The W.H.O. has resisted mounting evidence that viral particles floating indoors are infectious, some scientists say. The agency maintains the research is still inconclusive.
this article is being posted in full via Source link please consider visiting the site for more information and to support the journalist, it's being posted in full because of the soft paywall on the site. I believe all articles with the NYtimes related to coronavirus are still available with a free subscription. However just to make sure I'm posting here . written by Apoorva Mandavilli . . The coronavirus is finding new victims worldwide, in bars and restaurants, offices, markets and casinos, giving rise to frightening clusters of infection that increasingly confirm what many scientists have been saying for months: The virus lingers in the air indoors, infecting those nearby. If airborne transmission is a significant factor in the pandemic, especially in crowded spaces with poor ventilation, the consequences for containment will be significant. Masks may be needed indoors, even in socially distant settings. Health care workers may need N95 masks that filter out even the smallest respiratory droplets as they care for coronavirus patients. Ventilation systems in schools, nursing homes, residences and businesses may need to minimize recirculating air and add powerful new filters. Ultraviolet lights may be needed to kill viral particles floating in tiny droplets indoors. The World Health Organization has long held that the coronavirus is spread primarily by large respiratory droplets that, once expelled by infected people in coughs and sneezes, fall quickly to the floor. But in an open letter to the W.H.O., 239 scientists in 32 countries have outlined the evidence showing that smaller particles can infect people, and are calling for the agency to revise its recommendations. The researchers plan to publish their letter in a scientific journal next week. Even in its latest update on the coronavirus, released June 29, the W.H.O. said airborne transmission of the virus is possible only after medical procedures that produce aerosols, or droplets smaller than 5 microns. (A micron is equal to one millionth of a meter.) Proper ventilation and N95 masks are of concern only in those circumstances, according to the W.H.O. Instead, its infection control guidance, before and during this pandemic, has heavilypromoted the importance of handwashing as a primary prevention strategy, even though there is limited evidence for transmission of the virus from surfaces. (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now says surfaces are likely to play only a minor role.) Dr. Benedetta Allegranzi, the W.H.O.’s technical lead on infection control, said the evidence for the virus spreading by air was unconvincing. “Especially in the last couple of months, we have been stating several times that we consider airborne transmission as possible but certainly not supported by solid or even clear evidence,” she said. “There is a strong debate on this.” But interviews with nearly 20 scientists — including a dozen W.H.O. consultants and several members of the committee that crafted the guidance — and internal emails paint a picture of an organization that, despite good intentions, is out of step with science. Whether carried aloft by large droplets that zoom through the air after a sneeze, or by much smaller exhaled droplets that may glide the length of a room, these experts said, the coronavirus is borne through air and can infect people when inhaled. Most of these experts sympathized with the W.H.O.’s growing portfolio and shrinking budget, and noted the tricky political relationships it has to manage, especially with the United States and China. They praised W.H.O. staff for holding daily briefings and tirelessly answering questions about the pandemic. But the infection prevention and control committee in particular, experts said, is bound by a rigid and overly medicalized view of scientific evidence, is slow and risk-averse in updating its guidance and allows a few conservative voices to shout down dissent. “They’ll die defending their view,” said one longstanding W.H.O. consultant, who did not wish to be identified because of her continuing work for the organization. Even its staunchest supporters said the committee should diversify its expertise and relax its criteria for proof, especially in a fast-moving outbreak. “I do get frustrated about the issues of airflow and sizing of particles, absolutely,” said Mary-Louise McLaws, a committee member and epidemiologist at the University of New South Wales in Sydney. “If we started revisiting airflow, we would have to be prepared to change a lot of what we do,” she said. “I think it’s a good idea, a very good idea, but it will cause an enormous shudder through the infection control society.” In early April, a group of 36 experts on air quality and aerosols urged the W.H.O. to consider the growing evidence on airborne transmission of the coronavirus. The agency responded promptly, calling Lidia Morawska, the group’s leader and a longtime W.H.O. consultant, to arrange a meeting. But the discussion was dominated by a few experts who are staunch supporters of handwashing and felt it must be emphasized over aerosols, according to some participants, and the committee’s advice remained unchanged. Dr. Morawska and others pointed to several incidents that indicate airborne transmission of the virus, particularly in poorly ventilated and crowded indoor spaces. They said the W.H.O. was making an artificial distinction between tiny aerosols and larger droplets, even though infected people produce both. “We’ve known since 1946 that coughing and talking generate aerosols,” said Linsey Marr, an expert in airborne transmission of viruses at Virginia Tech. Scientists have not been able to grow the coronavirus from aerosols in the lab. But that doesn’t mean aerosols are not infective, Dr. Marr said: Most of the samples in those experiments have come from hospital rooms with good air flow that would dilute viral levels. In most buildings, she said, “the air-exchange rate is usually much lower, allowing virus to accumulate in the air and pose a greater risk.” The W.H.O. also is relying on a dated definition of airborne transmission, Dr. Marr said. The agency believes an airborne pathogen, like the measles virus, has to be highly infectious and to travel long distances. People generally “think and talk about airborne transmission profoundly stupidly,” said Bill Hanage, an epidemiologist at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. “We have this notion that airborne transmission means droplets hanging in the air capable of infecting you many hours later, drifting down streets, through letter boxes and finding their way into homes everywhere,” Dr. Hanage said.
The W.H.O. has found itself at odds with groups of scientists more than once during this pandemic. The agency lagged behind most of its member nations in endorsing face coverings for the public. While other organizations, including the C.D.C., have long since acknowledged the importance of transmission by people without symptoms, the W.H.O. still maintains that asymptomatic transmission is rare. “At the country level, a lot of W.H.O. technical staff are scratching their heads,” said a consultant at a regional office in Southeast Asia, who did not wish to be identified because he was worried about losing his contract. “This is not giving us credibility.” The consultant recalled that the W.H.O. staff members in his country were the only ones to go without masks after the government there endorsed them. Many experts said the W.H.O. should embrace what some called a “precautionary principle” and others called “needs and values” — the idea that even without definitive evidence, the agency should assume the worst of the virus, apply common sense and recommend the best protection possible. “There is no incontrovertible proof that SARS-CoV-2 travels or is transmitted significantly by aerosols, but there is absolutely no evidence that it’s not,” said Dr. Trish Greenhalgh, a primary care doctor at the University of Oxford in Britain. “So at the moment we have to make a decision in the face of uncertainty, and my goodness, it’s going to be a disastrous decision if we get it wrong,” she said. “So why not just mask up for a few weeks, just in case?” After all, the W.H.O. seems willing to accept without much evidence the idea that the virus may be transmitted from surfaces, she and other researchers noted, even as other health agencies have stepped back emphasizing this route. “I agree that fomite transmission is not directly demonstrated for this virus,” Dr. Allegranzi, the W.H.O.’s technical lead on infection control, said, referring to objects that may be infectious. “But it is well known that other coronaviruses and respiratory viruses are transmitted, and demonstrated to be transmitted, by contact with fomite.” The agency also must consider the needs of all its member nations, including those with limited resources, and make sure its recommendations are tempered by “availability, feasibility, compliance, resource implications,” she said. Aerosols may play some limited role in spreading the virus, said Dr. Paul Hunter, a member of the infection prevention committee and professor of medicine at the University of East Anglia in Britain. But if the W.H.O. were to push for rigorous control measures in the absence of proof, hospitals in low- and middle-income countries may be forced to divert scarce resources from other crucial programs. “That’s the balance that an organization like the W.H.O. has to achieve,” he said. “It’s the easiest thing in the world to say, ‘We’ve got to follow the precautionary principle,’ and ignore the opportunity costs of that.” In interviews, other scientists criticized this view as paternalistic. “‘We’re not going to say what we really think, because we think you can’t deal with it?’ I don’t think that’s right,” said Don Milton, an aerosol expert at the University of Maryland. Even cloth masks, if worn by everyone, can significantly reduce transmission, and the W.H.O. should say so clearly, he added. Several experts criticized the W.H.O.’s messaging throughout the pandemic, saying the staff seems to prize scientific perspective over clarity. “What you say is designed to help people understand the nature of a public health problem,” said Dr. William Aldis, a longtime W.H.O. collaborator based in Thailand. “That’s different than just scientifically describing a disease or a virus.” The W.H.O. tends to describe “an absence of evidence as evidence of absence,” Dr. Aldis added. In April, for example, the W.H.O. said, “There is currently no evidence that people who have recovered from Covid-19 and have antibodies are protected from a second infection.” The statement was intended to indicate uncertainty, but the phrasing stoked unease among the public and earned rebukes from several experts and journalists. The W.H.O. later walked back its comments. In a less public instance, the W.H.O. said there was “no evidence to suggest” that people with H.I.V. were at increased risk from the coronavirus. After Joseph Amon, the director of global health at Drexel University in Philadelphia who has sat on many agency committees, pointed out that the phrasing was misleading, the W.H.O. changed it to say the level of risk was “unknown.” But W.H.O. staff and some members said the critics did not give its committees enough credit. “Those that may have been frustrated may not be cognizant of how W.H.O. expert committees work, and they work slowly and deliberately,” Dr. McLaws said. Dr. Soumya Swaminathan, the W.H.O.’s chief scientist, said agency staff members were trying to evaluate new scientific evidence as fast as possible, but without sacrificing the quality of their review. She added that the agency will try to broaden the committees’ expertise and communications to make sure everyone is heard. “We take it seriously when journalists or scientists or anyone challenges us and say we can do better than this,” she said. “We definitely want to do better.”
2020.06.24 23:00 model-miliB1036 - Countryside and Rights of Way (Amendment) Bill - 2nd Reading
Countryside and Rights of Way (Amendment) Bill
A BILL TO Extend the cut off point for mapping rights of ways and paths. BE IT ENACTED by the Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows – 1 - Cut off date for extinguishment etc. (1) Section 56, subsection (1) shall be amended to read: The cut-off date for the purposes of sections 53 and 55 is, subject to regulations under subsection (2), 1st January 2036. 2 - Extent, commencement, and short title (1) This Act shall extend to England and Wales. (2) This Act shall come into force after the passing of this act. (3) This Act may be cited as the Countryside and Rights of Way (Amendment) Bill This Bill was submitted by model-elleeit MP on behalf of the Libertarian Party UK Opening Speech Mr speaker, I have recently been informed of a great disappointment for walkers and everyone alike. In 2000, the Countryside and Rights of Way Act was passed. One of the many aims of the bill was simple, to try and map as many pathways and rights of ways as possible. Unfortunately a lack of interest and a lack of a streamlined process has quashed any chance of mapping many rights of ways. Luckily, within the past few years a charity organization called the Ramblers’ Association have ramped up efforts to map these paths. The Ramblers organize walks to map out these paths and have done an excellent job so far. Despite the new interest, it may not be enough to map out the footpaths and rights of ways because of the cut off point set out in the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. The cut off point occurs in just over 5 years, which is very likely not enough time to map all the footpaths and rights of ways. That’s why I’ve presented this bill here today, to try and preserve our footpaths and rights of ways. Mapping them would make walking, horse riding, and other means of transportation easier and more accessible. I believe if there is a sustained amount of interest in mapping these pathways that we can map almost, or maybe all of the pathways and rights of ways. I truly hope that everyone here can agree to extend the cut off point so that we don’t lose our pathways.
https://preview.redd.it/k0vz9ybn3t651.png?width=496&format=png&auto=webp&s=2257c42b5204b52cf174af8ee64c1521eb1eefee In the story, the Herald was heading to Northern Europe when he witnessed a cult performing sacrificial activities, resulting in himself being sacrificed and turning into the first vampire, the Embrace. Based on the Embrace’s personality, because of his personal experiences, he harbors resentment towards human relations and the hypocrisy of human civilization. Because of this, he created the Tome, with the goals of imbuing chaos in the world. Although Victor’s own personality is not so extreme, gold skins usually resemble the deepest desires of every character - the poet friend’s death created a blow in Victor, making him lose trust in the emotions that humans displayed, only believing in letters and the real emotions expressed when they receive those letters. From this perspective, Victor and the Embrace share the same core values - “not believing in humans”. (There will be further analysis on Postman’s deductions in future) More extreme than Victor, the Embrace held the ability to create his own secrets, to narrate his life, and even the fate of others. He was able to distinguish between people’s truth and lies, and derive joy from observing them. These are all Victor’s (evil) desires, those that he could not achieve in his actual story. https://preview.redd.it/uxopl0ns3t651.png?width=897&format=png&auto=webp&s=c57c1c2eb68b634c15cba4140f28560cd78a8902 We go back to the later half of the 9th century. Ancestors of the Embrace may be of Celtic lineage, and subsequent generations lived in Great Britain. The Embrace himself was not initially a Christian, he shares a similar job title as Priestess, being proficient in paganism. Afterwards, perhaps due to events outside of his control, he converted to Christianity and became a missionary with “exceptional” performance. This conclusion is arrived at based on the cover of the Tome. The Tome’s cover has 8 branches that contain Younger Futhark alphabets of Ogham and Runes. https://preview.redd.it/i1k8ubqx3t651.png?width=369&format=png&auto=webp&s=038fe2be921e2eac4c26e8f2b385f18330aee066 https://preview.redd.it/ubiv6gil4t651.png?width=570&format=png&auto=webp&s=7919dec2c4d3c31285e6f32ffa1423fc452fa537 How did we deduce that the Embrace is Celtic? Firstly, Ogham is an alphabetic system from the Early Middle Ages, used primarily to write Old Welshand sometimes used to writeBrittonic languages. Ogham tradition names all letters after trees, thus it is also known as the Celtic Tree Alphabet. Currently, there are roughly 400 Ogham inscriptions on Great Britain, the main area of residence for the Insular Celts (contrasted with Continental Celts). Secondly, Younger Futhark. Runes can be primarily divided into 3 types: Elder Futhark, Anglo-Saxon Futhark, and Younger Futhark. In the era where Christianity spread in Northern Europe, most of the Futhark runes had become simplified into the Younger Futhark (AD 800), so the runes on the Tome’s cover might be in Younger Futhark. The people that were proficient in runes and the Ogham alphabets of Great Britain, and who could use them for magical purposes, were definitely not a group that initially believed in Christianity. Excluding the Nordics that remained after the invasion, only one group remains: the Celts that migrated from the mainland to the island. Seer’s deductions also stated that the druids in the Celts were usually friendly towards animals, or held friendships with animals, their working partners. A black dog) also follows the Embrace. During its life, it may have been the friend of the Embrace when he was not part of the church. Next, how did we deduce that the Embrace was a missionary? Kamilavka A kamilavka is an item of clerical clothing worn by Orthodox Christian and Eastern Catholic monks (in which case it is black) or awarded to clergy (in which case it may be red or purple). The kamilavka is a stiff cylindrical head covering from the Byzantine Empire. This hat has a supporting structure underneath, usually with pendants on both sides. In addition, the workmanship of the golden amice and mask on the Embrace match highly with the opus interrasile, a form of metalworking technique from the Byzantine Empire. Pieces of gold are cut out to create fashionable patterns. Opus interrasile Furthermore, the Embrace probably held the ecclesiastical title of an archpriest within the church. Red is a respectable colour in the Byzantine Empire, which could only be worn by nobles. Unless he was a high ranking clergy, he could not wear such a colour. The clothes on the Embrace suggests that he held a high rank within the church. Of course, it is also possible that he only wore these clothes after returning from Northern Europe. So how does a Celt become a missionary, and how does it relate to the Byzantine Empire? We need to look into Celtic history. Before Christ, the Celts had travelled across Europe and established powerful civilizations, and plundered and invaded Rome and Greece. Their groups had spread out across most of Europe. The France of today is their main place of residence. The Celts on the European continent were known as the Gauls, or the Continental Celts (contrasted with Insular Celts). It was until the 2nd century BC when the Romans defeated the Celts, and took Gaul as their province. The exiled Celts came to Great Britain. In subsequent centuries, they declared independence and slowly assimilated the native residents. During the late 6th century AD, the Germanic Teutonic conquest exterminated almost every native Celtic Briton. At the same time, Druidism) secularized. https://preview.redd.it/dzoqdai75t651.png?width=880&format=png&auto=webp&s=2a1ffd5b5771402d8a37b3c4403ba3aac75d0b8d The Byzantine Empire expanded and contracted across dynasties, influencing the culture and beliefs of people on Great Britain. In AD 795, the Vikings invaded Ireland, where Christianity had flourished. They committed church arsons, killed, and pillaged, eventually settling down permanently in Ireland mid 9th century. In AD 871, the Vikings occupied London, and another fleet besieged Paris. Ironically, Christianity was instead popularized in Northern Europe. Compared to the relatively barren Northern Europe, the abundant and prosperous Christian world left a memorable impression on the plunderers. The multiple gods worshipped in Northern Europe were largely motivated by self-interest. Many of them wished to attain peace, food, wealth, and power, and so held faiths in certain gods. When they saw that Christianity could provide others with an abundant life, they also naturally embraced the idea that believing in Jesus could likewise benefit them. The background story of the Embrace before he became a missionary should be like this: In the mid-9th century, after the Vikings had established a permanent residence in Ireland, they continued their expansions. The Celts living in Great Britain were invaded, including the settlement of the Embrace. Due to pressures of survival, they had to abandon their old faiths and convert to Christianity, in order to seek refuge from the church.
AD 407 Celtic Britons declared independence. AD 432 Welsh St. Patrick promoted Christianity in Ireland. Soon after, Wales and Scotland followed. AD 449 Germanic tribes of Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invaded Britain. Detailed legends of King Arthur appeared. Monumental stone inscriptions of Ireland Tree Alphabets could be traced back as early as AD 500. Part of the Celts invaded Scotland and assimilated the local Picts. End of 6th century AD, the Germanic Teutonic conquest exterminated almost every native Celtic Briton. Druidism secularized. AD 780 Vikings started venturing outwards more frequently. AD 789 Vikings invaded Dorset, England. AD 793 Vikings invaded Holy Island of Lindisfarne, England. The Viking Age began.
The Embrace became a member of the church with such a historical background. Although he was not entirely trusted due to his mastery in magic, he gradually rose in status. Good things come to an end however. The protection provided the church was ultimately limited. The Vikings' violent behaviours were increasingly rampant, they eventually attacked the Christian church, stole icons and religious texts, and killed the clergy. The area resided by the converted Celts (such as the Embrace) were probably also looted, and with heavy casualties. Even worse, the church he was in may have been destroyed completely. This incident sowed within him the seed of hatred for Vikings.
Mid-9th century, the Vikings established a permanent residence in Ireland. AD 871 The Vikings invaded London, another fleet besieged Paris. AD 875 The Vikings found Iceland and settled down there. Apostle Ansgar evangelized pagan Denmark, Norway and Sweden. AD 902 Vikings left Ireland temporarily. AD 917 Vikings returned. The Christian cross unearthed in Denmark could trace back to AD 965.
Realizing this could not go on, the Church believed that: to stop the barbaric foreigners from attacking the church, they must let the Vikings believe and submit to God. As a result, the church sent a group of missionaries, including the Embrace. The Embrace brought his black dog on a journey, and wrote the very first “Tome”. The tome at this time was just a normal biblical manuscript; it did not possess any sorts of special magic that appeared later on. Manuscript of Orthodox Church At this time we are not sure about what he was thinking about his mission, but it was probably more difficult than he had expected. Next we analyse where the Embrace had gone to preach the gospel, and what the black dog resembles. Black dog The black dog) is essentially a nocturnal apparition, often said to be associated with the Devil or described as a ghost or hellhound. Throughout European mythology, dogs have been associated with death. Examples of this are the Cŵn Annwn (Welsh), Garmr (Norse), and Cerberus (Greek), all of whom were in some way guardians of the Underworld. The black dog is larger than a normal dog and often has large, red glowing eyes. However, there is a special legend about black dogs in Northern Europe: the church grim. The church grim is a guardian spirit in English and Scandinavian folklore. The church grim usually takes the form of a large black dog and guards churchyards from those who would profane them including thieves, vandals, witches, warlocks, and the Devil himself. It was a traditional custom to bury a dog alive under the cornerstone of a church as a foundation sacrifice so that its ghost might serve as a guardian. The black dog accompanying the Embrace may have been a product of such a ritual. Considering the Embrace was a missionary heading to Northern Europe, he may have arrived in Scandinavia. Part of the locals accepted his preachings, and agreed to build a church in agreement. However, as part of the trade, they required him to abide by their traditional customs. In other words, he had to sacrifice his dog. In Northern Europe, live burials, and even human burials were extremely common. The locals’ requests were actually not out of the ordinary during those times. However, for a missionary like the Embrace, this could have been seen as a very terrible request. Regardless of the process, the result was that his dog died in this agreement. Unfortunately, his preachings did not affect much positive results. As mentioned, the belief in multiple gods in Northern Europe were largely motivated by self-interest. An additional god such as Jesus was not able to effect change in their code of conduct. Following this, it was imaginable that the Embrace was not in the best mental state. And it was also in this state when a special Northern Europe group that believed in evil gods found him. They were the ancestors of Nidhogg. In Norse mythology, Nidhogg is an evil dragon that gnaws at a root of the world tree, Yggdrasil. https://preview.redd.it/3z2p9wqx5t651.png?width=444&format=png&auto=webp&s=cb8878bc495b39c7d890434d0d049dfc7ae10e54 In Norse mythology, Yggdrasil supported nine worlds, set in three layers. Once the tree collapses, the fire giant Surtr will bring about Ragnarok, the destruction of the universe. What Nidhogg’s ancestors represented is precisely the Nidhogg that brought about the fire giant Surtr - in other words, the Nordic believers of the fire giant Surtr. They may have felt that the Embrace contained a powerful foreign energy, and used him to achieve what they have planned to do for a long time. Regarding their roles, they may have been exiles.
The Viking social structure comprised of 3 main social classes: Jarl: noblemen, wealthy landowners, and merchants; Karl: freemen, the main force of the army, warriors; Thralls: the lowest of the three-tiered social order, slaves. This division is not absolute. A freeman can become a slave if he loses all of his land; a slave can become a freeman by loyally serving their master, as they earn an opportunity to redeem themselves. The nobles and freemen meet regularly to make important decisions and to resolve conflicts. They referred to this meeting as a “thing)”. At the earliest times, the king was the largest nobleman, making almost all of the important decisions, so the tribal meetings were only responsible for certain local affairs. However, in Iceland, there was never a king. The tribal meeting decides everything. All of the nobles and freemen in the island had to participate in the meeting, which is held at a specified date every year for 2 weeks. The Vikings unconditionally accept all the orders from the king and the meeting. These orders are well-known to everyone. Anyone that violates them will be expelled from the tribe, and be titled as Outlawed (in this case, not an anti-hero). The exiled are unable to plough on any land and are unable to receive anyone’s help. They are only allowed to reside in the caves and live by hiding and stealing.
In order to explain how the Tome became the Tome, there will be a large section about Cthulhu Mythos, the Runes, the Viking compass vegvísir, and the Icelandic magical staves Galdrastafir. (Most of these contents and information come from Lethal amount of radioactive metal aka Sine, I thank her again): First let’s look at the markings on the Tome: https://preview.redd.it/e2dpwsd66t651.png?width=879&format=png&auto=webp&s=29a5a610e58dcd1430cd67ac7c5ee2359244bfd6 This section is completely interpreted by Sine, with reference toFuthark: A Handbook of Rune Magicby Edred Thorsson. (Abridged version, please check Google Docs page 9-17 for the book) When comparing the Icelandic magical staves and the traditional Viking compass, the Tome’s number 2, 3, and 4 have been clearly changed into Runes. The replaced 2, 3, and 4 correspond to the Viking compass consisting of 9 worlds in Norse mythology, referring to that of fire (Muspelheim), of the dark elves (Svartalfheim), and of the fog (Niflheim) respectively. Replacing the top right pathway Niflheim to deduce the original symbol: “fe” and “ass” Replacing the center right pathway Svartalfheim to deduce the original symbol: “ur” and “kaun” Replacing the bottom right pathway Muspelheim to deduce the original symbol: “logr” Niflheim was replaced with “fe” (resembling mobile property and power) and “ass” (resembling the Aesir Odin). The myth states that Odin utilized the sparks from Muspelheim to create the Sun, Moon, and stars. Svartalfheim was replaced with “ur” (resembling aurochs and drizzle) and “kaun” (resembling controlled fire and incineration). The myth states that the primeval cow Auðumbla was created when the heat from Muspelheim and the cold from Niflheim met in the middle of Ginnungagap. Muspelheim was replaced with “logr” (resembling life energy and organic growth). The myth states that all life energy is created from Muspelheim. In Norse mythology, be it god or human or other races, all life is created when the heat from Muspelheim and the cold from Niflheim meet. The heat from flames give them their initial life force, the cold from mists set their expected deaths. All human life is created from Muspelheim, and experience life in Midgard, and head to Niflheim after their deaths. The Embrace used these Runes on the Tome to change the original meaning of the three worlds, blocking all three pathways to the worlds. In other words, there is no birth, no growth, and no death. The three replacement Runes respectively represent: Muspelheim: The flame of life replaced by “logr” Svartalfheim: The creation process of life continues, but without any growth and development Niflheim: The fake “Odin” creates a flaming “Sun”, blocking the pathway to death, and life stops at this stage. At first glance, vampires’ life cycles match these 3 Runes. Because the origin of flames have been replaced, vampires are unable to accept that the normal symbol of life is sunlight (which explains why vampires fear sunlight). But the Embrace not only did this. In Norse mythology, dead humans need to go through Niflheim in order to reach Hel, to truly die before reincarnating. Correspondingly, there exists legends of a gatekeeper. The Nordics believed that Hel was underground, where you can only reach by walking on a rugged land of coldness and darkness towards the extreme north for 9 days and 9 nights. The gate of Hel is extremely far away from humans. Even Hermóðr, the fast messenger of gods, who rode Odin’s eight-legged horse Sleipnir, took 9 days before reaching the river Gjöll. This river marks the boundary of Niflheim. The Gjöll bridge is thatched with glittering gold, hung by a strand of hair. Móðguðr (“Furious Battler”) is the female guardian of the bridge over the river Gjöll. Anyone that wishes to cross the bridge must let her suck their blood as a toll. The gatekeeper in Northern Europe sucks blood as a toll. And the new species created by The Embrace also depends on blood sucking to maintain their life. You could even say that the Embrace created a new species that could compete with Hel’s gatekeeper. So here comes the question, what has bloodsucking got to do with Nidhogg, the fire giant Surtr? The concept of eclectic religion has to be mentioned, more specifically, what blood signifies in Christianity. Leviticus mentioned that blood in all living beings maintains their life, which states that blood is the essence of living beings. Combined with the world views of Northern Europe, the gatekeeper Móðguðr’s bloodsucking actually lets the energy of life (the flame) flow back to Muspelheim, creating a life cycle. The Embrace created bloodsucking vampires to halt this life cycle, to rob the forces of life away, essentially smothering the flames of Norse mythology. Over a long period of time, the number of vampires would increase up to a certain level, completely exhausting the flames of Muspelheim. The same day when no flames are available to create life, is the day when Ragnarok and the destruction of Northern Europe are imminent. Or we could say, not just Northern Europe; all civilizations would be destroyed. Isn’t it terrifying when a creation not only spreads, is irreversible, and also directly causes genocide? Another problem remains. Whereas the life force sucked by the gatekeeper returns to Muspelheim, where does the life force sucked by the Embrace and other vampires go? It is to the fire giant Surtr, or in other words, the Great Old One Cthugha from Cthulhu Mythos. https://preview.redd.it/vrl8j3yv6t651.png?width=903&format=png&auto=webp&s=15ef4763097c6aae0040fd613e3f985b6d0e6812 https://preview.redd.it/qgsjp0yx6t651.png?width=912&format=png&auto=webp&s=a0f0bae1c1e50d933247b57f462f7d99f02d450f In addition, the theme about the bloodline sucking life forces for Cthugha is also in the original Cthulhu Mythos. The Fire Vampires of Fthaggua appear as electrical discharges of bright crimson. They feast upon the life-energy of sentient creatures. As the victim gets consumed, it bursts into flames in a manner akin to spontaneous combustion. At the same time, the Fire Vampires also acquire the victim’s memories and knowledge. All of the Fire Vampire’s consciousness are linked together and consolidated as a hive mind, with the resulting consciousness exerting control over all of the members. Fthaggua (may be Cthugha’s offspring) rules over all of the Fire Vampires, and also feasts upon the life-energy of sentient creatures. Through continuous feeding, Fthaggua and his Fire Vampires continually accumulate knowledge, becoming smarter and more cunning. Considering all these myths and legends, the story of the Embrace must be this: Under the guidance of Nidhogg’s clan, the Embrace saw their worshipped fire giant Surtr, or the Cthugha in Cthulhu Mythos. Partially out of the request of Nidhogg’s clan, and his own intense madness and purposes, the Embrace signed a contract with Surtr, putting a part of Surtr into the Tome: anyone that signs a contract with the Tome is gifted with eternal life as they turn into vampires. To sustain their own life, vampires also need to suck human blood regularly, allowing them to consume human soul and life force. Part of this soul and life force flows directly to Cthugha, becoming part of the Tome’s power. Furthermore, over time, as the number of vampires increases, all human souls and life force would be absorbed by Cthugha. There will no longer be newborns, and all human life will perish. After which, the vampires will no longer have a source of food supply and perish. All civilizations will no longer exist, ushering in a literal end. The Embrace wrote the Tome under the premise of all this knowledge. Since this began, he lost his initial motivation, taking delight in witnessing the demise of civilization. After which, the Embrace only cared about whether this plan could come to fruition, whether the vampires could successfully spread and channel human’s life forces for the Tome. Later, he may have used the newly written Tome on the cultists. He used the Tome’s brainwashing ability to turn some of the cultists into devoted Christians (who were Coordinator’s ancestors), and turned the other cultists into vampires. Afterwards, the Embrace lied that the newly write Tome was a sacred object that could change people’s faiths. He brought the Northern Europe clan that believed in Cthugha back to the church, letting them remain in Central Europe as they assumed roles of converted devotees. Of course, it wasn’t like nobody discovered what he did. The Embrace might have brought his dog, the church grim, when leaving Northern Europe. At the same time, he might have left behind a few vampires, who caused alarm in the local huntsman clan. Eli’s ancestor might be the expedition hunters established during that time. They travelled thousands of miles to Central Europe, in an attempt to stop the Embrace and to garrotte the cultists. However they were outnumbered, and were eventually disbanded. Their future generations never even knew why their ancestors came to this place, and could only silently watch over the village. Cat Soup has analyzed Experienced Huntsman very thoroughly: Experienced Huntsman is actually a Viking warrior (I may translate in future if requested). Here we supplement a few minute details: This is the image of Yggdrasil on the Experienced Huntsman. https://preview.redd.it/b0so1q937t651.png?width=510&format=png&auto=webp&s=2420e81781f5376304a5753b49d5e94b9a7182fa In Norse mythology, Yggdrasil is carried by three enormous roots. The third root of Yggdrasil goes down to Niflheim, close to the well named Hvergelmir. It is here the dragon Nidhogg chews on Yggdrasil’s roots. Nidhogg is also known to suck the blood out of the dead bodies that arrive at Hel. At the very top of Yggdrasil lives an eagle. The eagle and the dragon Nidhogg are bitter enemies, truly despising each other. In Experienced Huntsman, the root heading towards Niflheim is broken, corresponding to the tome sealing the pathway to Niflheim. https://preview.redd.it/qhkhij5j7t651.png?width=111&format=png&auto=webp&s=7adafbb593dd40a65379a7b98b4f8b20c1f9e772 Another detail is the eagle: https://preview.redd.it/i0n6o6to7t651.png?width=529&format=png&auto=webp&s=80c22116915619dd04bd37803222561d1974325f Combined with the image of Yggdrasil at the back of the Experienced Huntsman, the eagle rests at the top of Yggdrasil. Poetic Edda not only mentioned Nidhogg chewing on Yggdrasil, but also the grudge between Nidhogg and Veðrfölnir at the very top of Yggdrasil. Veðrfölnir (Old Norse "storm pale," "wind bleached", or "wind-witherer”) is a hawk sitting between the eyes of an unnamed eagle that is perched on top of the world tree Yggdrasil. Its sharp vision notices everything occurring in the world. In the Halloween story, it was the eagle that blocked Nidhogg’s bullet, flapping its wings to deflect the bullet towards the Tome. Apart from the Experienced Huntsman, the church is likewise not easy to deceive. The Embrace brought back the followers from Northern Europe, and was probably accepted and recognized for his achievements. As the missionary stories during those times included many cases of resurrection, the Catholic church also believed that immortality and reincarnation signified a saint. So I am afraid that they may have recognized the Embrace as a saint, coronated him, let him wear the nobelity-signifying red clothes, and brought him everywhere to preach and pilgrimage. But the church was clearly not foolish. After a while, perhaps noticing that their new followers had something peculiar, they found out about the Tome held by the Embrace, and discovered others who were vampires. Coincidentally, the church around Eastern Europe Yugoslavia had started seeing immortality as a punishment from God; these people were unable to reach Heaven.
The church itself was motivated to use the fear from what the Romanians called the Morai, or what the Balkans called the Vrykolakas/vourdoulakas, to promote Christianity.
Thus, the first church that decided to investigate everything thoroughly first excluded the new, unbrainwashed followers from Northern Europe, and then sent a message to the church that the Embrace was in. The churches in Byzantium also started considering immortality as heretical. They took the chance to inspect each new bloodline member and searched for the whereabouts of the Embrace, who had escaped with the Tome. Yet it was all too late. The bloodline developed successfully and prospered, until the bloodline covenant was established. After clearly describing how the Embrace and vampires came to be, we analyze the Revolutionist living underground of the church, the destruction of the bloodline covenant, the entire plan of the Embrace, and the future for the bloodline. As previously mentioned, the contents of the bloodline covenant may be:
The church will divide a fixed area that allows the bloodline to prey. They will secretly monitor smaller villages, limiting their migrations. They will also inculcate values that ignorant villagers will never depart from, letting them be “raised” in a fixed area; The church will not interfere when the bloodline preys on or assimilates humans into vampires within this area. Correspondingly, the bloodline cannot prey or even injure humans outside of this region, and cannot turn them into vampires. As for the new and weak wandering bloodline members, as long as they abide by the bloodline covenant, they will not be attacked by humans, and will enjoy the same basic rights as human beings.
To Misfit, this covenant is highly unfair to humans; to Bloody Sword, it obstructed the development and freedom of the bloodline. To Embrace, the establishment of the covenant is something he most detests seeing: Under the protection of the covenant, new vampires would establish a good relationship with humans, and switch to veganism (Flavourful Spirits); or will only hunt humans within the territory, slowly creating methods of predating that would not resort to fatal injuries, and even establishing distant relationships with humans (Wanderer). The Embrace wanted to make vampires and humans stand in opposition with each other, to guide civilization towards destruction (even if in the end, so will the bloodline). So the bloodline covenant that helps both parties to become closer, to peacefully coexist, is something that ruins his entire plan. Thus, he also created a series of plans to destroy the covenant. The origins can be traced back to when the Lady in the Mirror was sealed, which was also when the Count was tasked with managing the Tome in the castle. We also mentioned that the Count is more of a job; the Tome chose the Count, not the other way round. https://preview.redd.it/53ywocj78t651.png?width=865&format=png&auto=webp&s=b65a55525a0f846b29b3fc9cf97f671feb8d9bc1 The Tome’s ability to call the Embrace to bring it away suggests that they are inherently connected and are able to communicate with each other. The reason why the Embrace chose to hand the Tome to the Count was because the Embrace knew that, in the future, the Count would create mayhem that would be enough for breaking the bloodline covenant. Looking back to the past when the Embrace joined the church, whose members were then slaughtered by Vikings, and then decided to send them as missionaries to Northern Europe, he probably understood from very early on that: sometimes the people that destroy everything aren’t radical hunters, but thoughtless idealists. His predictions of the Count’s behaviour were accurate; after a while, the Count was tired of people’s fear and hatred, and sealed the Tome. The radical bloodline members also behaved in a predictable manner. They covertly monitored the Count, and devised a plan for stealing the Tome. Except the Embrace probably did not expect the Count would naively organize a banquet, leading subsequent events to unfold theatrically: Nidhogg fired a shot at the Count. The Experienced Huntsman, belonging to the same ancestral roots, deflected the bullet. The bullet ricocheted to hit the Tome on the Reservist’s waist, destroying part of the Tome and causing its magical energy to leak out. The Embrace had not expected this development (the Embrace thought that radical bloodline members would just directly steal Jack’s Tome), but in some sense it actually helped him: the unstable Tome directly caused bloodline members to mutate, which quickly broke the covenant. Thanks to this, the Embrace devised a new plan: under the premise that Bloody Sword was monitoring the castle, the Embrace purposely stole the unstable Tome in front of Bloody Sword, inducing him into pursuit. The prestigious vampire elders were probably bloodline members that were handpicked by the Embrace, so he clearly knew each and every one of their personalities. He knew that Bloody Sword hoped to obtain the techniques for writing the Tome, and so specially designed a plan to let Bloody Sword Joseph collaborate with the church, to let the church witness himself getting “sealed” and intensify conflicts. With this chance, he transferred a portion of the Tome’s power into the photograph held by Bloody Sword, granting him the ability to write a “mini-Tome” (but they are basically from the same source). This allowed the Embrace to create new vampires at a very grand scale, ensuring his plan to destroy all civilizations could be successfully carried out. At the same time, the attention of the church redirected onto Bloody Sword, who created all of this fiasco. Bloody Sword was unable to pay attention to whether the Embrace was really sealed (in reality, the church no longer found it important whether or not the Embrace was sealed, because his plans had come to fruition). The fact that Joseph had lit the candles but did not obtain the Tome suggests that the Embrace may have waited till the coasts were clear before disappearing along with the Tome, leaving the bloodline and the church behind to stand gravely in opposition against each other. How should we say this... The last time we talked about Bloody Sword:
So this tombstone is probably brought by Bloody Sword for the Embrace: Bloody Sword might have thought about trapping the vampire forefather under the tombstone, taking over the tome or techniques possessed by him, and under Bloody Sword’s leadership, begin a new era for the vampires. How times have changed!.jpg
Bloody Sword: Nothing has changed! In some sense, Bloody Sword completely and perfectly became a pawn of the Embrace. Bloody Sword even thinks he’s won when in reality he’s lost. But he really isn’t to be blamed. Bloody Sword held enough ambition, and made thoughtful considerations. But his vampire forefather simply surpasses him in all facets! After realizing the truth and feeling completely helpless, the church may have resorted to the Revolutionist as an emergency measure: if vampires truly wish to oppose them, then as long as they fight with their opponents, permanent damages will be incurred. So they placed hope on transformation. They attempted to integrate human life into other living beings, in order to create even more souls and life forces, to escape their fate of having their life forces sucked away by the bloodlines; or perhaps create a new species that is unafraid of the bloodline, and that could destroy the bloodline before they prosper again. Even though they were treading on thin ice, they entrusted bloodline member Yhidra to execute the plan, using Cthulhu to counter Cthulhu. This choice embodied the wishes of humans and of all civilizations, so the church cannot be seen as evil in this story. (As for the church “raising” villages for bloodline members to prey on them, to let Nidhogg annihilate all who spread rumours about them, it appears to be forgivable when we view from their perspective after realizing the truth) Fortunately, not all options are full of despair. Within the bloodline, there also exists variants such as Flavorful Spirits and Count Jack, similarly looking for a way to coexist. There are also people with a sense of justice within the bloodline, They are willing to go through hell or high water in order for both parties to co-exist, or for humans to survive (see Misfit). As for the weaker bloodline members, they naturally did not enjoy living destitutely after the break of the covenant, and craved for peace (see Wanderer). In conclusion, the plan of the Embrace is terrifying, but it does not mean he will definitely succeed. Presumably in the future, both parties will be able to find a way to perfectly coexist together; just like the wishes of Count’s Banquet, to understand each other and reach a common ground.
2020.06.24 00:27 cocoaAMPSydney This Weekend June (27th -28th)
First thing first let talk about the elephant in the room,if you are worried about current pandemic please check out the How to Protect Yourself & Others thread, and to end this I (u/cocoaAmp) understand and appreciate the ongoing community concern about the Coronavirus. NSW government are implementing measures to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of all everyone including but not limited to retailers, staff and local community. Disclaimer: Due to the current uncertainty regarding coronavirus, many events are/MAY being cancelled. It is best to call ahead and/or the event organizer's websites directly via the contact details on the listing if you are unsure. Stay At Home Crap
There are Whale Watching cruises that im reluctant to share hope you guys understand. Also if interested you can download Wild About Whales App on Android or IOS u/nearly_enough_wine and u/SydneyTom you Fine-Looking Gents Sidebar Please!!! All expense listed above are Entry Fees and or Suggested Minimum Spending (SMS) for an Adult Homo Sapiens of Eighteen years and Plus under the Commonwealth legislation that is implemented by the event promoters which I’ve no authority over with, all prices and dates may subject to change without any of my acknowledgement and or any notice. Please double check with the coordinators for time, date and cost of the event. This is Crap list is simply accumulate from various websites I’m not the event planner nor the organizer, I’m purely doing this to Crap for my own amusement. I am not here to promote or spam anything onSydneyjust putting information for people want to have fun this weekend, future Crap may subject to change and/or seize to exist without any notice. Please also get a hang of this subs wiki page for more and any events that I may have missed. Anyway have a beautiful day you bastards!!!
2020.06.23 09:45 RefinedTiberiumRule Britannia Progress Report I: Land of Hope and Glory
Hello, I'm Rule Britannia Lead Tiberium, and I'm proud to finally get out our first dev diary! We have been perfectionists about our content, not wanting to mislead or disappoint, so with many cuts and revisions we have finally belted this out for you. Of course, the current pandemic and other commitments have been a drain on our productivity, but we hope this will reinvigorate the community. Preface aside, this will mark the first Rule Britannia progress report, specifically about Britain's position in the mod. As it is the foundation on which the mod lies, it is by far the most important nation although one of the most absurd due to its surreal circumstances. As such our lore descriptions will be limited in scope due to how impossible of a task it is to summarize it with our current workforce. (note: read the events if you want more context! They are designed to be enjoyable to read, but are not required to understand the PR!) PREMISE: Britain, like in our timeline, was empowered by the events of the Glorious Revolution. However, instead of abandoning his Dutch ambitions, William III chose instead to ally his homeland with his new domain, leading to absolute naval hegemony and great profits. With Whigs dominant in Parliament, absolutism in Britain appeared to be on its way out. In addition, Britain masterfully defeated France in the War of Spanish Succession, like it did in our timeline. From here, the Empire would only gain strength as it squashed any other European power in consecutive wars until the present start-date. Due to the entrenched Whig parliament, the Jacobite uprisings of the 1740s never occurred, and remained a peaceful movement among some High Tories, and consequently the Highland Clearances in Scotland were never carried out. The 1700s remained prosperous, with continental affairs continuing the pattern of victories for the Empire and its allies. When the 13 Colonies and Canadian provinces revolted in the 1770s due to the rising tax rates and presence of Enlightenment liberalism, they were quickly crushed by the government after concessions were promised in exchange for their loyalty. This would eventually morph into the Commonwealth of North America, as seen in 1936. The 1800s would see this era of dominance continue. When the French revolution sparked after rising bread prices and royal incompetence wrecked the French economy, Britain was swift to intervene and established an occupational government after several years of fighting which restored the Bourbon monarchy, along with coalition allies Prussia and Austria. After Spain joined France for a brief period, it was forced to concede California, Florida, and the Louisiana territory previously ceded from France. From here, Britain continued to expand its mighty empire through all corners of the Earth, soundly defeating France several more times, the upstart Prussian giant, the Ottoman Empire, Spain with its ally Portugal, Russia, and even the mighty Qing empire. Clearly, it was poised for world domination. However, throughout all of this time, Parliament generally held the sway with the reigning monarchs preferring to delegate responsibilities to a trusted Prime Minister. Whigs and Tories, Liberals, and eventually Labour would all hold some importance, but one Prime Minister greatly altered the paradigm. Cecil Rhodes, a mining tycoon throughout Katanga, Zambezia, Bechuanaland, and the Cape had successfully clinched the Liberal leadership in the late 19th century. With his long premiership, he had defeated the Prussians, established the Commonwealth of Nations, and greatly restored the prominence of the then-reigning Victoria in Parliament, as he believed the Empire required a strong leader to guide it through the complexities of diplomacy, economics, and warfare without political squabbles interfering. This "Rhodes System" would define British politics until the start of the mod, which is why the nobility is much more prominent in-game. As such, this is all we will say regarding lore for now. Our main focuses are quality, gameplay, and entertainment rather than lore and narrative, at least at the moment, hence the lack of emphasis. THE STARTING SITUATION: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is the global hegemon. Present on every continent, in every sea, and all across the skies, Britain is undoubtedly perceived as invincible. King George V Windsor (formerly Hannover-Saxe-Coburg-Gotha before anti-Prussian sentiments necessitated a change) has been one of its most popular monarchs, much like his grandmother Victoria. Soundly beating Mexico and several other belligerents, he gained praise for his wartime leadership. In addition, he remained scandal-free unlike many of his relatives. Sympathetic to the issues of the common man and woman, but also exceptional at dealing with higher society, he is perceived as a model Briton. However, his health is very much so in decline, at an impressive 70 years and ailing. He himself fears for the future, considering the beliefs of his eldest son Edward and the untimely death of his other son, Albert, in Mexico. Plus, Albert Victor, his disgraced brother, presides over India and yearns to return from his informal exile. Clearly, soon as he dies, Britain will face some political turmoil. Fortunately, however, his good friend the Viscount Hailsham, Douglas Hogg, is an experienced career politician who is known to handle any situation tactfully. A Tory but also a friend of many Labour and Liberal peers, he is the uniter Britain would call upon after the absence of its powerful monarch. Regardless of intrigue, the Empire seems to face a prosperous future ahead in the eyes of many. https://imgur.com/jcrrFqf (intro event) https://imgur.com/ZG8Kvpl (starting political screen) Britain starts of course, with George V. His Majesty's Prime Minister, Douglas Hogg can be seen in an experimental GUI to the right. Several national spirits mark what Britain has going for it, such as the expensive (and ongoing!) Anglo-Mexican War. Expected to be a quick victory, Mexico put up a strong resistance and fought with guerilla tactics in the Sierra Madre highlands and in its many deserts and jungles. In the May Offensive of 1931, even the Duke of York Albert was killed in action after Mexican mortars opened up deep behind enemy lines. As such, it remains a quagmire for the British armed forces used to naval supremacy and an accompanying naval invasion that'd quickly neuter the weakened opponent's forces. In the future, Britain will have to determine a strategy to avoid financial decay and finally vanquish the rebels. The next national spirit is simply a buff resulting from the popular rule of the King. The next national spirit is a debuff that signifies unrest in Ireland, due to the events following the disastrous famine of the 1840s and the continued Anglo dominance over land and rights within the Emerald Isle. As Britain's foremost domestic issue, you will have to debate whether Home Rule will keep Ireland content or whether other solutions are necessary. The next spirit is the mod's namesake, well partially, "Britannia Rules the Waves", a sign of Britain's impregnable naval superiority which it holds over the rest of the world. Two steps above gunboat diplomacy, Britain is able to preserve its holdings and ensure domestic protection with its powerful armada sailing the seven seas. Finally, the last national spirit is the sidelined parliament. It indicates Britain's rubber-stamp Westminster system that fails to accomplish anything more than it needs to, with the Coalition for the King largely dominant. While some Tories, Liberals, and Labour MPs have declined the label of the coalition, it is by no doubt the party which enables the enlightened absolutism present to this day. Composed of absolutists, aristocrats (despotic ideology), and Rhodians (formerly administrationist ideology), the Coalition for the King ensures a streamlined legislative process for the Empire. THE DEATH OF KING GEORGE V: Unfortunately, the Georgian era would not last forever. Meeting his tragic demise during the early hours of January 20th, 1936, George V passed away in his sleep. https://imgur.com/DSyUVB5 https://cdn.discordapp.com/attachments/534553586282004491/616658010265092120/teaser.mp4 (superevent teased previously in Discord) https://imgur.com/yCu0FML Britain's people went into several days of mourning. An inspirational and upstanding man met his Lord, leaving his people behind for eternity. Many did not know what the future held without the King and former Crown Prince at the helm of the ship christened Britannia. However, Edward's coronation would bring times of joy and youth to the mournful public. https://imgur.com/MVXMsef EDWARD REX https://imgur.com/Ve9cp8q https://imgur.com/5v3cqjG Parliament was quick to secure an effective transition from George to Edward. With some last-minute rituals, mourning, and commemorations, Edward was ready for his reign. King Edward, with all of his controversies, was a welcome sight to the public. The decrepit George V deserved rest, and his son seemed eager to take the crown to restore Britain's political processes. His coronation was cast to be a great event that anyone could attend at Westminster Abbey. After all was said and done, the audience roared with applause, knowing that the young man would preside over decades of prosperity. After all, he had a comfortable parliamentary majority to work with and an excellent government. https://imgur.com/kdzQ0mE As part of his goodwill missions following coordination, King Edward was due to have a dinner with several prominent British businessmen in order to set a good fiscal policy for the upcoming year. Unfortunately, tragedy would strike once more. This time, a regicide. https://imgur.com/HlDLvDN While the police were quick to take down the suspect, things would only begin to get worse. https://imgur.com/u84XAi0 https://imgur.com/dRqfizh Now with both the victim left mangled on the ground and the assassin dead, the case appears to be hitting a dead end just as soon as it had begun. Parliament, with the backing of the outraged public, immediately chooses to launch an investigation into the double assassinations and their motives. (This will be covered more specifically at a later point.) In addition to the investigation and the outrage following the shooting of the recently crowned King, there now lies a succession crisis. While it should logically go from George V, then to Prince of Wales Edward, then to Duke of York Albert, then to Duke of Gloucester Henry, an issue arises with the question of Albert Victor. Albert Victor, the disgraced brother of George V, was forced to abandon the throne. However, as he never signed an abdication decree in concordance with British law, some scholars maintain that he should be returned to the throne. With this dispute, it has officially become a succession crisis, with even some foreign houses staking a claim. This unprecedented political turmoil would prove to be a nightmare in no time. HERE ENTERS THE SUCCESSION CRISIS: https://imgur.com/jppruIE Pictured is the succession crisis tree, which coincides with the investigation. In conjunction with the investigation, you will be able to pick a side to choose depending on who is found to be the most untrustworthy (was Albert Victor's status as Viceroy of India the means necessary for an assassin to kill Edward) or was it Henry (who had an Irishman kill the King for patriotic reasons)? As such, this basic decision will compromise the rest of the tree's design. https://imgur.com/IVhiAnn https://imgur.com/6w3yJYR (excuse the January 1st, it's a debugging date, it would be approximately June or so in a game) The main decision you will be able to take is who will succeed Hogg. You are able to either select the Marquess of Salisbury (James Gascoyne-Cecil), a conservative or the Viscount Simon, (John Simon), a man who considers himself more of a reformer. This decision will be a crucial part of future Britain gameplay as you decide the future of parliament. https://imgur.com/O8p1vxZ https://imgur.com/Fg3aHEw THE REFORMERS: https://imgur.com/fBQMYy2 HENRY: https://imgur.com/tb8GsM6 Henry, the Duke of Gloucester, is the son of the late King George V and the brother of Edward. While he is no revolutionary nor a republican, he is by far the mainstream candidate most Britons would prefer. Kind-hearted, polite, and generally cast in a mold akin to his father, Henry will be the safest choice as well. He is eager to liberalize the franchise, restore some of parliament's integrity, and can shore up the Coalition as he implements some of his minor reforms to labor, finance, and colonial affairs. https://imgur.com/6YetX9Y He strives to stake his claim as the most legitimate and as the best option available, and portrays himself as a stable, moral, and credible choice to deliver the solutions to Britain's problems. https://imgur.com/k0GN3tB Henry also seeks to carry on the legacy of his deceased father, in an effort to, of course, drive up the sympathy of the British public to his potential reign. https://imgur.com/9yNKmuH Of course, Henry also meets with working-class individuals and other members of general society to break the mold of court affairs, as he wishes to be a true man of the people, like Richard Lionheart of yore. https://imgur.com/NAcHONf Nonetheless, the public are not his sole ally. Most of his family support him as well, much to the disgust of Albert Victor, who spends his time "campaigning" for the crown while Parliament debates deeming Henry an usurper and a fraud. If Albert Victor is successful in these rumors, Henry may be discounted or even arrested as Parliament eliminates him from the running. GEORGE: https://imgur.com/e5JYt8z The Duke of Kent, George is the younger brother of the aforementioned Henry. Deeply more committed to reform, he is also substantially more uncertain as a contender. Suspected to be prone to scandals himself, George is viewed with caution as a youthful dreamer rather than as a serious contender. https://imgur.com/7JIvslr However, he shocks many in the public when he takes bold steps to start where his brother left off. Quickly establishing himself as a contender, he gladly takes interviews and advocates for sweeping liberalizing reforms on a deeper scale than his elder sibling. https://imgur.com/OFBKAPy His connections with the roaring high society of the time also serve him well, as the children of Britain's elite gladly drink with him and discuss politics. It is quite clear that some MPs are swayed to his side for this very reason. MARY: https://imgur.com/Uj7NMkk However, the Duke of Kent is not the only contender emerging from Henry's ashes. Princess Mary, the Countess of Harewood and Lady Mountbatten, she and her husband have made a name for themselves politically before the beginning of the crisis. https://imgur.com/CIovI13 This husband of hers specifically, Lord Mountbatten, has made a name for himself along with Mary within Fabian circles in British political clubs. The Fabian society serves as Britain's foremost socialist organization, which simultaneously tacitly supports the Empire and the monarchy. However, there is no doubt that Mary is the most radical option. https://imgur.com/oRgbZFr She will advocate for social democratic policies much like those of Labour, which many suspect to be the fault of her husband. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that she has her own agenda... Overall, George and Mary will work together for their shared desire for reform, but ultimately, one of them will decide amongst themselves who will take the reformist caucus. https://imgur.com/avK4upm https://imgur.com/Ndl9GJI THE CONSERVATIVES: https://imgur.com/vo787Kg ALBERT VICTOR: https://imgur.com/r5uydS8 The estranged eldest son of Edward VII, Albert Victor was forced into an informal exile and abdication due to a myriad of factors ranging from his marriage to allegations of homosexuality. A sickly man from the years of media pressure, he is present at game start as India's Viceroy, finally being able to make a name for himself besides that of tabloid headlines. https://imgur.com/NZRYeWb His return to home shocks many, as it was the first time he had returned to the homeland since his departure decades ago. This repatriation would reinforce the scholars' claim that Britain may very well have manipulated Albert Victor out of his rightful throne. A theme which would define his upcoming campaign of sorts. https://imgur.com/wXXdDMQ https://imgur.com/Okp8KMw https://imgur.com/t5Ka0q3 There is no doubt Albert Victor is proper with conservatives. Edward and Albert had fought valiantly, but the other siblings had been idle within the homefront, especially after the death of Albert. Meanwhile, Albert Victor had crushed dissent within his Indian realms and established an effective colonial bureaucracy ultimately subservient to him. Careful to carry the support of industrialists, aristocrats, and other elements of society who preferred the status quo and the Rhodes system, Albert Victor made quick work forming alliances and endorsements. However, it would be incorrect to say that Albert Victor fails to attract the middle and lower classes, when he very much so can draw on nationalistic sentiment to carry his message of normalcy. https://imgur.com/q4OWCRg His record is also something he displays proudly, with medals adorning his uniform. His wife serves as a diplomatic marriage in addition to his affection, and his previous leadership serves to reinforce his message of vast credentials to rule. However, Albert Victor is a shady individual. With his domains of several hundred million, it is very possible for him to have obtained the funds or equipment necessary to carry out the assassination of his brother. Only the investigation will tell...until it decides against him! NIKOLAUS: https://imgur.com/5nWTzdR Nikolaus, Prince of Oldenburg, serves as the Dutch ruler at gamestart. Fervently imperialistic and admiring of nationalistic movements, Nikolaus' argument lies upon a crux of militarism and their support to rule. https://imgur.com/1ektf5B https://imgur.com/dBRlgfM His message resounds loudly with the military itself, entangled in the seemingly eternal Mexican "swamp". With a campaign to expand enlisted outreach with interviews and inspections, Nikolaus also can rely on the remnants of Albert Victor's conservative bloc and the endorsement of Douglas Haig, the famed General who had presided over the invasion of Anatolia and its subsequent occupation. With this small but loyal base, it is very possible for Nikolaus to cause an upset. https://imgur.com/7bdC7v4 Nikolaus is not alone in his bid to reclaim Britain's conservative legacy, strangely enough. DUARTE: https://imgur.com/6mnvNJG Duarte Nuno de Braganza, a relative of King Luis currently reigning in the Lusitanian nation has staked a claim to the throne albeit a very loose one. By far the most outrageous of the candidacies, he seeks to uplift the United Kingdom's Catholics and establish a true monarchy. Many suspect him to be a Portuguese plant in order to preserve the 1373 alliance in the face of adversity, others suspect him to be outright delusional. https://imgur.com/WrR3H53 Duarte proposes a simple but bizarre platform for the nation: mending the status of Catholics. This serves to directly oppose Nikolaus' Protestant convictions ironically, even though both are the most conservative choices. His detractors call him a crypto-Jacobite, but many see him as a man with a legitimate interest in healing the wounds present in Ireland. https://imgur.com/qrVv0fa In addition to his almost militant Catholicism, Duarte draws upon his leadership in Portugal to reassure Britain that he has more policies. With growing apathy in society as the crisis drags on, Duarte begins to establish himself as a very credible choice to juke the establishment's grip on society, perhaps he may even break the Rhodes system! CONCLUSION: While focus trees are lacking, and the investigation a seeming side note, we hope this premise will effectively set up how RB will play out. As such, we will generously answer questions on our subreddit and in our Discord's ask-a-dev channel. Ironically, Britain was one of the last countries to receive a "game plan" due to how unique its premise is. I think this serves to effectively lay down a foundation for future progress reports and hint at our future content, which we hope to deliver weekly once more, as most of our energy has gone into writing the events. Hopefully you enjoyed it all, and I would like to thank all the Team Members who helped deliver! Spuddatomic (co-founder and maker of the original map!), Darth Riki 01, Woodrow Wilson, mango, foxide, Lazergaz, uncountablyInfinite, bread, Conrad von Hotzendorf, Thunderslav, zamnil, Paradox, Boss, cikka, Lazergaz, Jaxx_On, Schizophrenia, Alzheimer, Silvanus, Jungle Rat, Sino, mop, PunkRadio, Turtle, Palks (the main source of inspiration for this premise!), Target, Wendell08, Ghesor, Calph, Dogs231, PontusMeister, 422, I Like Cake Too, Ame, HansTheColorizer, Vltava, jentren, thanosaekk, Theia, Azenia, Maximo, Danzig, JKrouss, PRW-8/32, GottNichtMitUns, YryesThePigeon, Jaspy, timbothy, TheOverseer, Shift, Victory143, semi, octorok, and lastly JeSuis! Next teaser will be hopefully early next week. We are committed to showing in-game, functional, content with gameplay elements! A release plan will be announced in the near-future as well, keep your eyes and ears focused! We are a team that focuses on quality and team morale over workload, hence our fluctuations in regards to teasing. We apologize nonetheless for the long wait and silence leading up to it. We will also begin to use the subreddit again, be sure to subscribe! RuleBritMod! Here is our Discord: https://discord.com/invite/jVptXCS Last but not least, I would like to shout out several other mods we work happily with. The New Order: https://discord.gg/CXgJ7K7 (many of our members hail from here originally!) Godspeed: https://discord.gg/hCMM5tY (One of our members is lead dev there!) The Next Moves Forward, a mod based off a British collapse in the premiership of Margaret Thatcher. https://discord.gg/dbVVr2k (One of our members is lead dev there!) Torch of the Protectorate, another mod I work on, and kind of an opposite to RB! (One of our members is the lead dev there!) https://discord.gg/2PNwgNA FoR is a project JeSuis works on, I think he'd appreciate the support https://discord.gg/zjhqWzQ Thanks for reading this far! Be sure to ask questions and follow rules while doing so. Tiberium. (DISCLAIMER: WE ARE NOT AT ALL RESPONSIBLE FOR WHAT HAPPENS IN THE OTHER SERVERS)(DISCLAIMER II: WE APOLOGIZE FOR ANY TYPOS OR GRAMMATICAL ERRORS, THEY MOST LIKELY HAVE BEEN RECTIFIED BY THE TIME THIS IS PUBLISHED) (DISCLAIMER III: WE DON'T HAVE A LEGAL TEAM THIS IS JUST MY RAMBLING AGAIN)
2020.06.23 06:35 TheIndustrialDevClaire - The Riot Medic
[Author's Note: This isn't the first concept I've made for an OW hero; however, this is the first time I posted one on a public forum. Any feedback - whether it be criticism or support - is fully appreciated, and I'll respond to any comments I get as soon as I am able to get to them.]
- Overview -
Flex Support - 200 HP (200 Health, 0 Armor, 0 Shields) “When the worst comes, I will keep you fighting.” The Chief of Cardiff’s riot police with a distaste for Omnics following her girlfriend’s death in the King’s Row Uprising.
- Abilities -
"Claire utilizes her 12-gauge shotgun and her biotic capsule launcher to both harm her enemies and heal her allies. Equipped with a deployable scanner UAV drone and a stun trip wire, Claire knows how to protect her allies from attacks, and how to enforce real pain on enemies who dare to step forward anyway." Primary Fire: 12-Gauge Shotgun: 8 ammo: Claire fires a long-barrel pump back police shotgun, blasting enemies in front of her with damaging pellets. The pellets spread depending on how far away they are fired from, so the shorter the distance, the more accurate you are. Aiming down the sights, however, makes the cone of spread narrower for the pellets. After each shot, they need to pump back the shotgun. Claire selects this weapon by pressing 1. - Type: Hitscan - Ammo: 8 - Reload Speed: 0.4 seconds per ammo + 0.3 seconds for pumpback (3.5 seconds total) - Fire Rate: 0.8 shots per second - Shot Buffer: 0.3 seconds - Damage: 10-20 per pellet (80-160 damage overall) - Num. of Pellets: 8 - Spread Angle: 15 degrees constant - Falloff Range: 20 meters - Headshot: Yes - Can Aim Down Sights: Yes Secondary Fire: Biotic Capsule: 1 ammo: Claire fires a China-lake grenade launcher that rather than grenades fires biotic capsules. These capsules stick to surfaces and provide healing to any allies which are within range of them. These capsules do not damage enemies. Claire can only have 3 capsules down at once: firing a fourth capsule replaces the first. Each capsule has a health pool and can be destroyed by enemy fire. Claire themselves does not heal from these capsules. Clare selects this weapon by pressing 2. - Type: Arcing Projectile - Ammo: 1 - Reload Speed: 3 seconds - Fire Rate: 0.33 shots per second - Projectile Speed: 15 meters per second - Area of Effect: 4 meters (Capsule) - Healing: 50 per second - Health: 75 Health - Headshot: No - Can Aim Down Sights: No L-Shift Ability: Scanner Drone: 6 second cooldown: Claire tosses into the air in whatever direction she is facing a scanner drone, which hovers in place and highlights in Claire’s vision any enemies which it can see, allowing Claire to see them through walls if they are in two different locations. The drone will hover wherever it is placed. The drone has 100 health and can be shot down by enemies. The drone itself makes noises of its rotors spinning, making it so the drone is not impossible to detect. If Claire throws the drone somewhere whilst it is down, it will disappear from its original position and go to the new one. - Cooldown: 6 seconds - Object Health: 100 HP - Max Range: 50 Meters - Duration: Until Destroyed E Ability: Stun Wire: 8 second cooldown: Claire deploys a stun wire device on a wall using a holographic deploy rig, forming a blue laser in the direction in front of it. Claire and their allies can walk through the blue laser perfectly fine. If an enemy player walks through the laser, they will be briefly shocked and stunned. This laser rig has a 75 health pool, and can be destroyed by enemy players. Claire can only have one stun wire deployed at a time: the cooldown will not restart until an enemy goes through it (destroying the rig), an enemy destroys the rig, or Claire self-destructs the stun wire by pressing E for a shorter cooldown timer. - Cooldown: 8 seconds (if destroyed) - Cooldown: 4 seconds (if self-destructed) - Object Health: 75 HP - Impact Damage: 5 - Duration (Stun): 3 seconds - Duration (Wire): Until Destroyed - Max Wire Distance: 10 meters Ultimate: Reinforcer: 1860 charge: Claire pulls out a pistol in her right hand and a green hardlight shield in her left. This shield absorbs all damage inflicted towards it and converts it into shields for both Claire and any allies within radius of her. Claire holds the shield in front of her, protecting her from forward gun fire, and is able to shoot enemies in front of her using her pistol, which she holds to the side of the shield. This shield cannot be destroyed, rendering Claire temporarily invincible from the front but exposed on the sides, back, and feet (unless she crouches). Claire’s other abilities and main weapons are disabled whilst this is active. - Ultimate Cost: 1860 points - Duration: 10 seconds (or until Claire dies) - Type (Pistol): Hitscan - Damage (Pistol): 20 - Ammo (Pistol): 12 - Fire Rate (Pistol): 4 shots per second - Headshot (Pistol): Yes - Can Aim Down Sights (Pistol): No - Shield Rate (Shield): 70% of all damage absorbed
- Background -
Name: Claire Foster Biotype: Human Gender: Female Age: 38 Hometown: Cardiff, Wales Base of Headquarters: Cardiff, Wales Line of work: Cardiff Riot Police Chief Association: Cardiff Riot Police
- Backstory -
Young Claire Foster joined the Cardiff Police Force as a police medic at the age of 18, becoming one of the youngest officers in their ranks. Quickly showing her strength on the field and her medical talent in high-stress situations, Claire was promoted over time to join Cardiff’s riot police, specifically designed to handle riots and other major threats. Claire felt by joining, she would be doing a service for Wales and the United Kingdom that she could find honor in. Eventually, Claire got into a relationship with one of her fellow officers, Sadie. Claire and Sadie would talk about their dreams after the police force of joining the ranks of Overwatch, even as the organization’s reputation began to grow sour. Claire - like many citizens in the United Kingdom and across Europe – saw Omnics as inferior, and didn’t believe they should hold the same rights as their human masters. Sadie, meanwhile, advocated for Omnic rights, and as a result, Claire refused to vocally advocate against Omnic rights so as to keep Sadie happy. For a while, Claire felt her life was perfect. Disaster struck Claire when, in 2068, the King’s Row Uprising began. Prior to the uprising, the City of London called for riot police all across the United Kingdom to come to London to serve as backup when a riot broke out. Unfortunately for Claire and Sadie – both of whom were at the Uprising – and the rest of their riot squad, London gravely underestimated how strong Null Sector would attack. When the fighting started, Sadie held off against the approaching Omnics whilst Claire provided medical assistance to downed civilians. In the midst of the battle, Sadie’s gun jammed and she was struck by an OR-14 unit. Claire comforted Sadie as her life slipped from her fingers. Then, Claire went into a rampage, tearing apart Omnics limb for limb and managing to take down a few E-54 and OR-14 units. When more Omnic reinforcements came in, Claire had to be pulled back by her allies to prevent her from plunging herself into the army and dying. It wasn’t for another few days that Overwatch came in to take care of the situation, taking down Null Sector’s presence in London and ending the crisis. Feeling betrayed by the British Government for not letting Overwatch interfere sooner, Claire has since refused to step foot in London or anywhere in Britain, remaining in her home country of Wales. The next eight years that followed were marked by unrelenting action against Omnics by Claire. Two years after the incident, Claire was nominated as the Chief of the Cardiff Riot Police Division. In collaboration with the City of Cardiff, Claire successfully pushed for what became known as “Sadie’s Law”, enforcing the ban of all Omnics from Cardiff, dignifying it as one of Europe’s first “Human Cities”, and threatening harsh action on any Omnics which came in. In the six years since, Claire has personally taken part in hundreds of missions cracking down on Omnic presence in the city and helping the victims of Omnic violence, and the city of Cardiff and Chief Claire have become symbols of the fight against Omnic Rights all across Europe. Claire has refused ever since the uprising to start dating other people again, believing doing so would be a betrayal to Sadie’s memory and would distract her from her goals. In Claire’s mind, only one thing is important to her life: the protection of the people of Wales from the Omnic menace spreading across United Kingdom and the world. However, as Null Sector begins to re-take their foothold on the world stage and Overwatch leads the fight against them, Claire has found herself faced with a tough moral choice: join the effort by Overwatch to take down Null Sector once and for all, or defend her home country from the approaching Omnic threat unlike any the world has ever seen.
2020.06.15 14:12 DeusEx1991The Henry Jackson Initiative by Lady Forester
While reasearching Epstein's known associates, an interesting individual stood out. Lynn Forester de Rothschild, Lady de Rothschild. No intention of this being a Rothschild Conspiracy. If your are uninterested to read the content below, scroll down to Comment to get my summary and take on this information. As always please Fact check this. (HJI) is a bi-partisan, transatlantic movement of business leaders, senior policy makers and academics focused on promoting a more Inclusive Capitalism. The HJI calls for international collaboration from businesses and other organizations to encourage the widest possible adoption of programs that improve capitalism as a driver of wellbeing for society. The HJI grew out of the Task Force project For Inclusive Capitalism, which sought solutions to the effects on society and business as a result of the global financial crisis of 2007 – 2008 and the dislocations caused by capitalism’s practice over the past 30 years. The Taskforce, which was co-chaired by Dominic Barton, Global Managing Director, McKinsey & Company, and Lady Lynn Forester de Rothschild, CEO, El Rothschild, published its inaugural paper Towards a More Inclusive Capitalism in May 2012. The report sets out three pathways for business action that lie at the heart of the HJI’s mandate:
Education for employment: addressing the gap between employer needs and employee skills
Nurture start-ups and SMEs: mentoring small businesses and improving access to credit for them
Reform management and governance for the long term: replacing today’s focus on short term performance
The HJI exists to highlight and support businesses and other organizations working to promote the broadest possible adoption of best practices in these and other areas related to Inclusive Capitalism. The HJI believes there is an urgent and compelling demand for business to act to address the greatest systemic issues facing capitalism today. The HJI also believes that business is best positioned to lead innovations in areas that need them the most.
Scoop Jackson was convinced that there's no place for partisanship in foreign and defense policy. He used to say, 'In matters of national security, the best politics is no politics.' His sense of bipartisanship was not only natural and complete; it was courageous. He wanted to be President, but I think he must have known that his outspoken ideas on the security of the Nation would deprive him of the chance to be his party's nominee in 1972 and '76. Still, he would not cut his convictions to fit the prevailing style. I'm deeply proud, as he would have been, to have Jackson Democrats serve in my administration. I'm proud that some of them have found a home here.
Jackson was known as a hawkish Democrat. He was often criticized for his support for the Vietnam War and his close ties to the defense industries of his state. His proposal of Fort Lawton as a site for an anti-ballistic missile system was strongly opposed by local residents, and Jackson was forced to modify his position on the location of the site several times, but continued to support ABM development. American Indian rights activists who protested Jackson's plan to give Fort Lawton to Seattle, instead of returning it to local tribes, staged a sit-in. In the eventual compromise, most of Fort Lawton became Discovery Park), with 20 acres (8.1 ha) leased to United Indians of All Tribes, who opened the Daybreak Star Cultural Center there in 1977. Opponents derided him as "the Senator from Boeing" and a "whore for Boeing" because of his consistent support for additional military spending on weapons systems and accusations of wrongful contributions from the company; in 1965, 80% of Boeing's contracts were military. Jackson and Magnuson's campaigning for an expensive government supersonic transport plane project eventually failed. After his death, critics pointed to Jackson's support for Japanese American internment camps during World War II as a reason to protest the placement of his bust at the University of Washington.Jackson was both an enthusiastic defender of the evacuation and a staunch proponent of the campaign to keep the Japanese-Americans from returning to the Pacific Coast after the war.
Jackson Papers controversy
Senator Jackson's documents were donated to the University of Washington shortly after his death in 1983, and have been archived there ever since.When the materials were donated in 1983, university staff removed all information considered classified at the time.Additional materials were added to the collection until 1995. At some point, library staff discovered a classified document in the collection and sent it to the government for declassification. In response, in the summer of 2004, a man who identified himself as an employee of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) called the University of Washington asking to inspect Senator Jackson's archived documents housed there. He found a document labelled as classified and showed this to a librarian. In February 2005, 22 years after Jackson's death, a five-person team including staff of the CIA, Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and the Information Security Oversight Office came to library to review all of Jackson's papers to remove anything still considered classified, or reclassified since then. The Department of Energy found nothing of concern, but the CIA blanked lines in about 20 papers and pulled 8 documents out of collection. As of 2018, some files in the collection are available only to those regarded by the library as "serious researchers", who must first sign a release not to divulge some of the information contained in the files.
The Henry Jackson Society
The society was founded on 11 March 2005 by academics and students at Cambridge, including Brendan Simms, Alan Mendoza, Gideon Mailer, James Rogers and Matthew Jamison. It organises meetings with speakers in the House of Commons. The society claims that it advocates an interventionist) foreign-policy that promotes human rights and reduces suffering, by both non-military and military methods, when appropriate. In 2006, the society worked to raise the profile of the Ahwazi Arabs of Iran, who it claims are currently being oppressed by the Iranian government. After originating within the University of Cambridge, the organisation is now based in London. In April 2011 the entire staff of another London think-tank, the Centre for Social Cohesion (which has since been dissolved), joined the Henry Jackson Society. The organisation is a registered charity in England and Wales and earns financial backing from private donations and grant-making organisations which support its work. The income of the society increased significantly from 2009 to 2014, from £98,000 to £1.6 million per year. In 2017 Hannah Stuart, one of the society's Research Fellows, released Islamist Terrorism: Analysis of Offences and Attacks in the UK (1998–2015), which profiled every individual convicted under terrorism legislation in the UK between those dates with an Islamist connection.
Structure and projects
The Society has produced a breadth of research reports and papers. These have mostly focused on Islamist extremist activity in the UK, crackdowns on human rights and democracy elsewhere, and various facets of foreign policy and defence.Its current workstreams include:
Asia Studies Centre. This Centre seeks to provide "an in-depth understanding of the structural shifts, regional complexities and historic tensions that exist alongside the tremendous economic and social growth that traditionally characterise the 'rise of Asia'."Publications include a paper on the possible outcomes of the negotiations with North Korea,and the need to safeguard critical national infrastructure in the West from vulnerabilities which may be built in by China.
Global Britain Programme. Focuses on "the need for an open, confident and expansive British geostrategic policy in the twenty-first century – drawing on the United Kingdom’s unique strengths not only as an advocate for liberalism and national democracy, but also as a custodian of both the European and international orders." This centre has published papers on what the European Union 'owes' the United Kingdom, as well as advocated for increased military spending by NATO members.
Russia & Eurasia Studies Centre. Researches domestic and foreign policy issues in Russia and the former Soviet states. In 2018 the Conservative) MP Bob Seely published a paper through this Centre which sought to define 'Contemporary Russian Conflict', and in which he accused the government of Vladimir Putin of pursuing KGB-style tactics.
Centre for the New Middle East. Established following the Arab Spring, the Society describes this Centre as "dedicated to monitoring political, ideological, and military and security developments across the Middle East and providing informed assessments of their wide-ranging implications". The Centre has released reports highly critical of Iran.
Centre on Radicalisation & Terrorism. Focuses on the threat to the United Kingdom and elsewhere by Islamist terrorism. Reports have ranged from analyses of the UK charitable sector to the way in which criminals utilise the darknet.
Student Rights. Created in 2009 "as a reaction to increasing political extremism and marginalisation of vulnerable students on campus". This project has tracked what it describes as "extreme" speakers on British university campuses.
In September 2018, the Society announced the creation of a new Centre for Social and Political Risk. This Centre will "identify, diagnose and propose solutions to threats to governance in liberal Western democracies", focusing on social cohesion and integration; freedom of speech and political correctness; demographic change; and other issues.
The think tank has been described by the media as having right-wing and neoconservative leanings, though it positions itself as non-partisan.In 2014, Nafeez Ahmed, an executive director of the Institute for Policy Research & Development, said that the Henry Jackson Society courts corporate, political power to advance a distinctly illiberal oil and gas agenda in the Middle East. In 2009 the society became the secretariat of two all-party parliamentary groups (APPGs), for Transatlantic and International Security, chaired by Gisela Stuart, and for Homeland Security, chaired by Bernard Jenkin. A transparency requirement upon non-profit organisations acting as secretariat at that time was that they must reveal, on request, any corporate donors who gave £5,000 or more to the organisation over the past year or cease acting as a secretariat organisation. In 2014, following a query, the society refused to disclose this information and resigned its position as secretariat of the APPGs concerned in order to comply with the Rules. The Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards, Kathryn Hudson, upheld a complaint against these APPGs on the grounds data had not been provided, but noted the society had already resigned its position and that the consequence of this non-provision therefore "appears to have taken effect" as the Rules intended. The case was therefore closed with no further action taken and the APPGs themselves dissolved with the dissolution of Parliament in March 2015. The APPG Rules were subsequently changed in March 2015 so that only those non-profit organisations providing services to APPGs of more than £12,500 in value needed to declare their corporate donors. In July 2014 the Henry Jackson Society was sued by Lady de Rothschild over funds of a "caring capitalism" summit. Lady de Rothschild claims that she has financed the summit and that HJS and its executive director Alan Mendoza are holding £137,000 of “surplus funds” from the conference that should be returned to the couple’s investment company EL Rothschild. Think tank discussions on the Middle East and Islam have led some media organisations to criticise a perceived anti-Muslim agenda. Marko Attila Hoare, a former senior member, cited related reasons for leaving the think tank and Scottish Labour leader Jim Murphy was urged, in 2015, to sever his links with the society. According to the report published in 2015, "a right-wing politics is apparent not only in the ideas that the Henry Jackson Society promotes, but also emerges distinctly on examination of its funders." In 2017, the Henry Jackson Society was accused of running an anti-China propaganda campaign after the Japanese embassy gave them a monthly fee of 10,000 pounds.The campaign was said to be aimed at planting Japan's concerns about China in British newspapers. Co-founder Matthew Jamison wrote in 2017 that he was ashamed of his involvement, having never imagined the Henry Jackson Society "would become a far-right, deeply anti-Muslim racist [...] propaganda outfit to smear other cultures, religions and ethnic groups." "The HJS for many years has relentlessly demonised Muslims and Islam." In January 2019, Nikita Malik of the Henry Jackson Society provided The Daily Telegraph with information they claimed showed a Muslim scout leader was linked to Islamic extremists and Holocaust deniers.In January 2020 The Daily Telegraph issued a retraction and formal apology saying that: "the articles said that Ahammed Hussain had links to extremist Muslim Groups that promoted terrorism and anti-Semitism, and could have suggested that he supported those views and encouraged their dissemination. We now accept that this was wrong and that Mr Hussain has never supported or promoted terrorism, or been anti-Semitic.We acted in good faith on information received but we now accept that the article is defamatory of Mr Hussain and false, and apologise for the distress caused to him in publishing it. We have agreed to pay him damages and costs." The initial signatories of the statement of principles included:
This has been a rabbit hole and only half the story regarding Lady Forester. Then only link between Lady Forester and Jeffrey Epstein is In 1995, financier Lynn Forester discussed "Jeffrey Epstein and currency stabilization" with Clinton. Epstein, according to his own accounts, was heavily involved in the foreign exchange market and traded large amounts of currency in the unregulated forex market. I will post another story Lady Forester and the coalition for Inclusive Capitalism.
2020.06.13 18:09 TheNoHeartB984.A - Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill - 2nd Reading
Wales Justice and Policing Referendum Bill
A Bill To Create a referendum for the people of Wales to vote on whether or not justice, courts, legal profession regulations, and policing policy should be devolved, and to in a legally binding way enact the results in the case of an affirmative vote. 1 Definitions
(a) Approved regulators is defined as the Law Society of England and Wales, the General Council of the Bar, the Chartered Institute of Legal Executives, the Council for Licensed Conveyancers, the Chartered Institute of Patent Attorneys and the Chartered Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys, the Intellectual Property Regulation Board, the Association of Costs Lawyers, the Cost Lawyers Standards Board, the Master of the Faculties, the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, and other bodies approved by the Welsh Legal Services Board.
2 Referendum (1)- A referendum is to be held in Wales over the question of devolving justice and policing policy in Wales (conditions of which can as always be altered by the electoral commission). (2) Electors will be given a ballot paper with the following statement and responses, presented in both English and Welsh, and shall be asked to select one of the responses
(a) "Should powers over Justice and Policing be devolved from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Welsh Assembly, or should they remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom" (i) "Justice and Policing should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly"(ii) “Justice and Policing should remain reserved to the Parliament of the United Kingdom"
(2A) The Electoral Commission shall review the question before the referendum to ensure that it does not give any side an undue advantage, and to ensure that it is understandable by voters. (3) The Secretary of State or Welsh Ministers may publish such regulations as necessary to clarify standards of eligibility and conduct of the referendum. (4) 14 days (m: I asked Dylan for a number and this was the number) after this legislation's passage, a commission on Justice for Wales shall produce a report informing the public on the subject. (M: justice for Wales report in irl) (5) The referendum shall be held 45 days after this legislation’s passage.
(a) Welsh ministers may delay this by as long as one week if scheduling issues or emergencies arise. (b) An alternative date can be set by the electoral commission. (m: Quad)
(6) The Welsh ministers must appoint a Chief Counting Officer for the referendum, who shall be charged with ensuring its efficient execution, and encouraging participation.
(a) The Chief Counting Officer may only be replaced if convicted of a criminal offense or is impaired from doing their abilities. (b) The Chief Counting Officer may appoint deputies to assist in their job. (i) The Chief Counting Officer must also appoint a counting officer for each local government area, with standards for removal being the same as their own.
(a) There ought to be a "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camp, which entities ought to be able to formally sign onto, and with leadership formally designated by the Electoral Commission, with the members of leadership reflective of those who have joined. (i) The "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps should be given the permission to produce a one page pamplet each, outlining the case for their respective side, which shall then be distributed to the voters in a way the Electoral Commission deems fit. (b) There ought to be at least two debates during the campaign period between representatives of the "Should be devolved" and "Should not be devolved" camps, with each debate having different participants, but with ultimate authority to approve representatives being given to the leadership of the two sides. (c) A period of purdah must begin no later than 14 days before the designated date of the poll.
4 Legal System Jurisdiction Devolution Overview (1) The legal jurisdiction of England and Wales is on a forward basis hereby replaced with two separate legal jurisdictions, named England, and Wales. The Welsh jurisdiction’s legal system as a general principle shall be devolved to the Senedd. (2) In order to facilitate an efficient transition, as a general principle all laws related to matters of the legal system of England and Wales shall copy over to the new jurisdiction of Wales until such time as the Senedd alters them, unless otherwise stipulated in this legislation. 5 Policing Devolution (1) The ability to regulate and craft policy for domestic local law enforcement is hereby transferred to the Senedd.
(a) This Motion must be passed for the Act to come in to force
3) This Act extends to England and Wales. This bill was written by the Rt Hon.The Lord HoustonMBE PC MSP on behalf of the Labour Party, and is cosponsored by the Democratic Reformist Front, Plaid Cymru, the Libertarian Party, and the Peoples Movement. This reading will end on the 16th of June.
2020.06.06 04:43 Niko69lolThe legendary Prophet Michel Nostradamus,The Prophet of Calamities
Everyone has wondered what will happen in the future, what will the world look like, what will humanity look like in the future?At the time in the 40s, 60s and 80s,people have already created in the drawing, films, radio and books how the future would be.They said that we will have flying cars in 2010 for example, that man created machines and autonomous robots that helped humanity! There are also those dismal people with the future,that in the future the invasion of privacy will be monitored by the state as foreseen in the book 1984,or that machines, robots and androids will annihilate all of humanity predicted by skynet,global warming, overpopulation, nuclear war and other disasters. Throughout human history, many mystics have tried to predict the future, but none of them surpass it, NOSTRADAMUS!Who is he, and why was he chosen to face a god in ragnarok?Here is a summary of his life: Nostradamus Birthday: December 14, 1503 Nationality: French Died At Age: 62 Sun Sign: Sagittarius Also Known As: Michel De Nostredame Born In: Saint-Rémy-De-Provence, France Famous As: Physician Height: 6'2" (188 cm), 6'2" Males Family: Spouse/Ex-: Anne Ponsarde Gemelle Father: Jaume De Nostredame Mother: Jaume De Nostredame Siblings: Jean De Nostredame Children: Andre De Nostredame, Anne De Nostredame, Cesar Nostradamus, Charles De Nostredame, Diane De Nostredame, Madeleine De Nostredame Education: University Of Montpellier, University Of Avignon Died On: July 2, 1566 Place Of Death: Salon-De-Provence Nostradamus was a French physician and seer whose collection of prophesies, ‘Les Propheties’, has been widely credited for predicting major events throughout the world across centuries. Some of the major events that are considered to be predicted in his book include the French Revolution, the rise of Antichrists such as Napoleon and Adolf Hitler, the great fire of London, the development of the atomic bomb, September 11 terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and many more. Since the publication of the book, the number of his admirers has grown steadily, and the book has been as popular to the modern readers as it was to the people of its time. It is a well-known fact that he was a great physician who fought against plague throughout his life and cured innumerable patients; however, today he is best remembered as a great seer .While most of his followers think that his prophesies were the result of divine inspiration, critics maintain that his cryptic language makes most of his predictions vague, and a lack of a specific timeline means most of the prophesies can be associated with more than one similar incidents. They also claim that his followers retrospectively attach a fitting quatrain to a major event after the incident has already happened, which cannot be considered prophesy as such. Others think that instead of accepting them as prophesies, his works should be counted as social commentary that can fit Biblical events to the modern day catastrophes. Childhood & Early Life
Michel de Nostradame was born on December 14 (December 21 by some accounts), 1503, in Saint-Remy-de-Provence south of France, to notary Jaume de Nostradame and his wife Reyniere de St-Remy. He was one of at least nine children of his parents.
His paternal grandfather, Guy Gassonet, converted from Judaism to Catholicism in around 1460 and took up the surname Nostredame (Our Lady) to honor the saint on whose day the conversion had happened. Her mother was the granddaughter of Pierre de Saint-Rémy, a renowned physician in Saint-Rémy.
According to some sources, as a child, he was tutored by his maternal great-grandfather Jean de St. Rémy. His grandfather is also credited for teaching him classical languages and mathematics.
When he was 15, he went to the University of Avignon to study medicine for his baccalaureate. However, following an outbreak of the bubonic plague, the university was shut down and he was forced to leave only after about a year into his studies.
Work as a Physician
In 1521, Nostradamus embarked on an eight-year-long journey through the countryside and practiced as an apothecary for some years. He later enrolled into the University of Montpellier in 1529 to complete his degree in medicine, but his notions of astrology were looked down upon by Catholic priests.
He was eventually expelled from the university after the authorities learned about his past as an apothecary, a “manual trade” banned by the university. However, some still refer to him as “Doctor” and maintain that he had managed to complete his education and earn a degree.
In the following years, he continued to treat plague victims by travelling throughout France and Italy. He not only addressed the lack of proper treatment by experimenting with new remedies, but also cured an impressive number of patients by improving their hygiene and diet.
He is credited with creating the vitamin-C-rich herbal lozenge, “rose pill”, made of rosehips, which supposedly protected the people from the plague and was able to cure mild infections. His success as a healer earned him the patronage of many affluent citizens, most notably the leading Renaissance scholar Jules-César Scaliger, who invited him to Agen, in southwestern France, in 1531.
In 1538, he drew the ire of the Inquisition after his remark about a religious statue offended the local church in Agen. Afraid of being persecuted, he left France and travelled through Italy, Greece and Turkey for the next few years.
Work as a Seer
It is believed that during his travels to ancient mystery schools Nostradamus became more interested in the occult, studying horoscopes, practicing divine meditation, even trying necromancy and good luck charms like the hawthorn rod.
According to legends, he made one of his first successful prophecies when he met a group of Franciscan monks and declared that one of them would become Pope in the future. Among them was Felice Peretti, who became Pope Sixtus V in 1585.
Despite his occult practices, he remained a Roman Catholic, denouncing the Protestant Reformation, and was able to return back to France a few years later. In 1545, he helped the renowned physician Louis Serre in tackling a major outbreak of the plague in Marseille, and two years later, settled down in Salon-de-Provence, treating plague victims there on his own.
According to some sources, he started focusing on the occult practices after settling in Salon-de-Provence, and would often meditate for hours in front of a bowel filled with water and herbs. He claimed to have entered trance-like state in which he saw the visions that became the basis for his prophesies.
Seeing that almanacs were very popular at that time, he decided to write his very first almanac in 1550, and also Latinized his name to ‘Nostradamus’, following popular trends. His almanac was received with positive response, which encouraged him to write at least one almanac every year.
Over time, he included his visions in his almanacs as prophesies for the future events. Counting all his almanacs, there are at least 6338 prophesies that he wrote during this time.
Following the success of his almanacs, he decided to write a book containing one thousand French quatrains, titled ‘Les Propheties’ (The Prophecies), the first volume of which was published in 1555 and contained 100 quatrains. However, fearing religious persecution, he wrote the quatrains in obscure Virgilianised syntax, using words from several different languages, including Greek, Italian, Latin, and Provençal.
He claimed that his predictions were based on “judicial astrology”, assessing past astrological events and projecting them to forecast future events. However, his "comparative horoscopy" has been renounced by contemporary astrologers who thought his methods were wrong.
The book gained notoriety upon its release as many thought that he served evil supernatural forces to gain the extraordinary knowledge he communicated through the book, while others considered him insane or fake. Nevertheless, the book was able to earn him many admirers among the French nobility.
Following the publication of his almanac for 1555, which hinted at unspecific incidents harming the royal family, he was summoned to Paris by Catherine de Médicis, wife of King Henry II of France. Despite his initial fears, she turned out to be one of his ardent admirers and asked him to explain his prophesies and to create horoscopes for her children. He was eventually made Counselor and Physician-in-Ordinary to King Henry’s court.
He is often credited for successfully predicting King Henry II’s death in remarkable detail as quatrain I.35 of ‘The Prophecies’ mentioned the agonizing death of a ‘lion’ after being pierced in the eye in battle. In 1559, a 41-year-old King Henry II died following 10 days of suffering after his opponent’s lance pieced his visor and went through his eye during a jousting match.
He wrote at least two books on medicine, first of which, the 1555 cookbook titled ‘Traité des fardemens’, documented his methods of treating the plague, sometimes borrowing ideas from others. Two years later, in 1557, he published a loose paraphrase of ‘The Protreptic’ by Galen, the prominent Greek physician of the Roman Empire.
Despite the fact that Nostradamus has written a couple medical books, it is ‘Les Propheties’ that he is most famous for centuries after his death. Since its original publication, the book has had over two hundred editions and has rarely been out of print.
While his prophesies have overshadowed his work as a healer, he is often credited for successfully treating the Plague at Aix-en-Provence and at other places. He also created the “rose pill” to provide protection to the common people against the plague.
Personal Life & Legacy
After relocating to Agen in 1531, Nostradamus married a local woman, who has been identified by some as Henriette d'Encausse, and had two children with her. Ironically, his reputation as a healer suffered after he failed to save his wife and children, who died in 1534, presumably from the plague.
In 1547, he got married to a rich widow named, Anne Ponsarde, in Salon-de-Provence, with whom he had six children: three sons and three daughters. A decade later, he and his wife invested in a massive canal project organized by Adam de Craponne to relieve the dry Salon-de-Provence region of its water problems.
Nostradamus, who suffered from gout for a long time, became afflicted with edema or dropsy in 1566, which caused abnormal amounts of fluid to accumulate beneath his skin or within the cavities of his body. He summoned his lawyer in June that year to create a will leaving much of his property to his wife and children.
Some accounts maintain that he was able to predict his death as well, as he told his secretary on the evening of 1st July that he would not find him alive the next morning. He was found dead on the next morning ( 2 July 1566), following which he was buried in the local Franciscan chapel in Salon.
While most of his predictions refer vaguely to incidents in the distant future, Nostradamus is most noted for accurately predicting the death of King Henry II, which happened during his lifetime. However, some have noted that the quatrain I.35 of ‘The Prophecies’ appeared on print for the first time in 1614, 55 years after the event.
Even though he was buried in the Franciscan chapel in Salon, his tomb is now located in the Collégiale Saint-Laurent as his body was re-interred during the French Revolution. His original burial spot is now part of the restaurant La Brocherie. Nostradamus Predictions
Nostradamus has predicted nearly all the major events in the world. The following are some of the most famous prophecies and predictions by Nostradamus. Before the war comes, The great wall will fall, The King will be executed, his death coming too soon will be lamented. (The guards) will swim in blood, Near the River Seine the soil will be bloodied. This is one of the many quatrains which predicts the French Revolution. The great wall refers to Bastille, the King was executed and river Seine in France was bloodied due to the terrible guillotine. From the depths of the West of Europe, A young child will be born of poor people, He who by his tongue will seduce a great troop; His fame will increase towards the realm of the East. This prediction is about the rise of Adolf Hitler who was born in West of Europe (Austria) in a poor family. You must be aware the Hitler was a great orator and his speech influenced many people. His fame was spread to East because of his alliance with Japan. The last son of the man with the prophet's name will bring Diana to her day of rest. At a distance they wander in frenetic grief. Delivering a great people from ruin. The quatrain predicts about the death of Diana, Princess of Wales. She died with her boyfriend Dodi (he was son of 'Mohamed' Al Fayed). They both died at a distance from their homes, i.e., in France. Although the predictions of Nostradamus are still debatable, one cannot disagree the fact that more than hundred of his predictions have come true till date. It has been more than 500 years now from the date Nostradamus made his predictions, but, the mystery and curiosity about his prophecies still continues! About the prophecies: Here is the link to look at the book online where are your professions https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Les_Propheties And for those who want to buy the book or on the kindle: https://www.amazon.com/Prophecies-Nostradamus-Michel-Nostredame/dp/1479350249/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr= https://preview.redd.it/6l6sa1k0d7351.jpg?width=894&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a9303f1ec1b9c8148c8a00226c2f4f1f9bc4d58b
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